China Human Rights Briefings October 24-30, 2009

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China Human Rights Briefing

Reporting Human Rights Developments from the Grassroots

October 24-30, 2009

Week in Review

  • Chongqing courts heard two important appeals cases this week, though both concluded without verdicts. On October 28, the Fuling District Number Three Intermediate Court heard an administrative lawsuit filed by activist Chen Yang (陈杨), a rare challenge to the use of RTL to detain dissidents; however, Chen was not allowed to attend the hearing. Earlier in the week, on October 26, Chongqing’s Qijiang Court heard the appeal of Pan-Blue Alliance of Chinese Nationalists member Zhang Qi (张起), currently serving a four-year prison term for “inciting subversion of state power” after posting a series of critical articles online.
  • As Shanghai authorities tighten up control of “social order” ahead of next May’s World Trade Expo, police from the Maqiao Town, Minhang District Public Security Bureau (PSB) detained petitioner-turned-activist Shen Peilan (沈佩兰) for ten days on Oct. 29. One day earlier, Shen was prevented from meeting with former lawyer Zheng Enchong (郑恩宠) at his home in Shanghai, and Shen was beaten by police officers responsible for keeping Zheng under house arrest.
  • In a case demonstrating the difficulties faced by citizens seeking to challenge abuse by police and other law enforcement agencies without an independent legal system, Shandong resident Wang Jinsheng (王进生) continues to try to seek justice for his brother, Wang Jinyong (王进勇). Wang Jinyong was tortured by a Linyi City prosecutor and convicted on the basis of a confession extracted by this torture; despite medical records verifying the abuse, local officials have refused to investigate Wang Jinsheng’s claims or review his brother’s conviction.

Torture and Other Cruel, Unusual, or Inhumane Treatment

Shandong Officials Refuse to Investigate Torture, Dismiss Medical Records

In December, 2006, Linyi City resident Wang Jinyong (王进勇) was admitted to a local hospital for emergency surgery after he had been interrogated by Linyi City prosecutor Dong Jinwei. Wang and his brother Wang Jinsheng (王进生) allege that Wang Jinyong was tortured by Dong, and that a confession produced following that torture was used to convict Wang of bribery. Since his brother’s conviction, Wang Jinsheng has been using his brother’s medical records to petition officials for justice and for Dong to be held accountable for his actions. On October 21, an official at the Linyi City Procuratorate dismissed Wang’s most recent complaint, stating that “only an accusation from Dong’s superiors” at the detention center could serve as worthwhile evidence of any wrongdoing, and short of that, Wang would have to “overturn the ruling of the court” who declared his brother guilty before accusing Dong of torture. Without an independent judicial system, citizens like Wang are often left to bring their allegations of abuse against the same offices responsible for the abuse, with predictable results. (CHRD)[i]

Shanghai Police Beat, Detain Petitioner and Activist Shen Peilan

On the morning of October 28, Shen Peilan (沈佩兰) and Jin Tingqian (金婷乾), two petitioners and activists from Shanghai, travelled to the home of former lawyer Zheng Enchong (郑恩宠) to pay him a visit. Zheng, who provided legal assistance to victims of forced evictions and housing activists in Shanghai before losing his lawyers’ license following a 2003 conviction for “leaking state secrets”, has been under surveillance and had his freedom of movement restricted since being released from prison in 2006. Since August 30, police have increased their monitoring of Zheng, effectively placing him under house arrest. When Shen and Jin arrived at Zheng’s home, they were prevented from meeting with him. When they asked for a reason, the officers responded by resorting to physical violence. An officer struck Shen’s chest with his fists, injuring her. Police who arrived on the scene refused to act on Shen’s complaints against the officer who struck her. The next day, October 29, Shen was summoned by police from the Maqiao Town, Minhang District PSB, and friends soon learned she had been detained for ten days. It is not currently known whether her detention is administrative or criminal, or on what charge she is being detained. (CHRD)[ii]

Petitioning Hubei Teachers Detained, Fined, and Beaten

On October 28, police detained Yang Yongsong (杨永松), Cheng Changxiang (程昌祥), and three other former teachers from community-run (minban) schools in Hongan County, Hubei Province while the five were en route to petition in Wuhan, capital of Hubei Province. Yang was detained for five days and fined two hundred yuan, while the other four were fined, but not detained. In a related story, former minban schoolteacher You Chuqiao (尤楚桥) suffered six or seven broken ribs after being beaten by police while petitioning outside of the Hubei Provincial Government offices in Wuhan. The teachers are petitioning the government for social security and other benefits similar to those accorded to teachers at state-run schools. (CRLW)[iii]

Democracy Activist, Detained for ‘Anti-Government and Party’ Poems, Describes Hardships in Labor Camp

Luo Yongquan (罗勇泉), a poet and a member of the China Democratic Party from Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province, has issued an appeal for help from inside the Sanshui Re-education through Labor (RTL) camp in Foshan City, Guangdong, through an undisclosed channel. According to Luo, because of financial difficulties and his mother’s poor health, he has no means of receiving the money he needs to pay for living expenses while detained. Without outside assistance, Luo is unable to provide basic items, such as shoes, for himself, and likewise cannot obtain adequate food. Luo was sent to two years of RTL for publishing poems that “attack the Party and the government” in May 2009. (CHRD)[iv]

Access to Justice

Court Bars Plaintiff from Own Hearing; Lawyers Denied Visits ahead of RTL Appeal

On October 28, the Fuling District Number Three Intermediate Court in Chongqing heard an administrative lawsuit filed by Chen Yang (陈杨), a Chongqing activist sent to one year of Re-education through Labor (RTL) for “obstructing official business” by the Chongqing Municipal RTL Committee on June 19. One important element was missing from the courtroom, however, as Chen was prevented from attending by court authorities. This was not the first illegal restriction placed on Chen or his appeal over the course of his arbitrary detention: Chen Yang’s lawyers Li Zhi (李志) and Ma Xiaopeng (马小鹏) were not allowed to visit with Chen before the hearing despite numerous attempts, including one yesterday, October 27. Under these limitations, Li and Ma were reduced to arguing in court over procedural minutiae, rather than the facts of the case. The hearing, which is being closely watched as a test case since challenges to the use of RTL to detain dissidents are rarely accepted by Chinese courts, concluded without the court issuing a verdict or declaring the case closed. Chen was originally detained on June 3, 2009, while preparing a public display to mark the twentieth anniversary of the Tiananmen Massacre. (CHRD)[v]

Arbitrary Detention

Shandong Youth Tried for “Subversion of State Power” for Contacting Foreign Organization

CHRD learned today from one source that 20-year old Xue Mingkai (薛明凯), currently detained in Shenzhen, was tried for “subversion of state power” on September 10, 2009, by the Shenzhen Intermediate Court. According to Xue’s mother, Xue, who is originally from Shandong, was detained on May 8, 2009, and formally arrested on June 15. Officials charge that he contacted and joined an overseas democracy organization in April, 2009, which they claim constitutes “subversion”. Xue’s mother stated that Xue has suffered from depression since being struck in the head in a classroom in April, 2006; the family is awaiting the results of an independent mental health evaluation. (CRLW)[vi]

Update: Police Detain Several Black Jail Detainees Protesting in Hangzhou

Last week, CHRD reported on protests outside of the Zhejiang Supreme People’s Procuratorate in Hangzhou by a group of more than 40 Zhejiang petitioners and activists who had been detained in black jails during the recent National Day celebrations. The protest continued until the morning of October 29, when a large contingent of police officers arrived on the scene and encircled the protestors. According to witnesses, police detained more than ten protestors, including Xu Jie (许杰), Liu Xunlian (刘训连), Wang Limin (王利民), and Qiu Yumei (裘玉梅). The precise number of individuals detained, and their current whereabouts, are not known. (CHRD)[vii]

Sichuan Petitioner Forcibly Returned, Detained Locally in Black Jail

On October 17, 46-year old Zeng Xiaofeng (曾孝凤) and a group of four other petitioners from Zigong City, Sichuan Province, traveled to Beijing to petition about local officials’ illegal land requisition. On October 20, the five were seized by plainclothes policemen outside of the National Bureau of Letters and Visits in Beijing and taken to Majialou, a black jail for petitioners in the capital. Four days later, they were forcibly returned to Zigong. While four of the five were released after being interrogated, Zeng was not. According to family, she is currently being detained in a black jail in an unknown location in Zigong, and police have not notified the family of her detention or provided any legal basis for detaining her. (CHRD)[viii]

Six Villagers Detained for Protesting in Guangdong

Roughly 300 police moved in and detained six Baiteng Lake villagers in in Doumen District, Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province on the morning of October 21. The arrests followed protests by local residents over the conversion of local land resources to state-owned property by Doumen District officials. The six individuals – Lin Xiongqiang (林雄强), Xian Derong (冼德荣), Cao Zuohui (曹作辉), Huang Qunyu (黄群玉), Xu Dongguang (许东光), and Wu Shuqun (吴树群) – have since been criminally detained, though it is not known on what charges. Police did not produce any arrest warrants. According to local residents, as many as 2000 police since have been dispatched to the village to prevent further protests. (CHRD)[ix]

Daughter of Petitioner Who Died in RTL Camp Detained, Mistreated

Liu Yuhong (刘玉红), the daughter of Liu Fengqin (刘凤芹), a petitioner who died in detention after allegedly being abused, suffered a miscarriage while detained for “disrupting public order” in Tangshan City, Hebei Province. Police detained Liu for attempting to travel to Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hubei, to file for administrative review on behalf of her father Liu Shuoxiang (刘硕祥), who is currently detained in a Re-education through Labor Camp. Officers dragged Liu off a bus on October 19 and held her in the Liyuan Town police station in Tangshan, where she suffered the miscarriage. Police did not provide her with treatment until she was taken to the hospital on October 20, and as a result Liu suffered serious blood loss. She was then detained in a local government office until yesterday evening, when she was finally released. Liu remains in poor health and is currently recovering at her home. Her father, who is nearly 70 years old, remains in detention. (CHRD)[x]

Wuhan Petitioner Seized Following Protest Outside of Government Offices

On October 21, Wuhan police forcibly dispersed a group of petitioners who had gathered outside of the Hubei Provincial Party Committee offices in hopes of presenting their petitions to central government officials on an inspection tour of the city. On October 26, 60 or 70 petitioners again attempted to meet with the officials, and a clash broke out between the group and police. Police seized Chen Quan (陈泉), a petitioner who attempted to photograph a police officer beating an elderly petitioner, and took him into the government offices. As of late yesterday morning, he had not been released. (CRLW)[xi]

Fujian Petitioner Intercepted in Beijing, Held in Local Black Jail

CHRD learned today of the case of sixty-six year-old Peng Guocai (彭国财), a resident of Shaowu County, Fujian Province, who was detained in a black jail during the period surrounding the National Day celebrations. According to Peng, he was seized in Beijing at the Letters and Visits Office of the State Council on September 30 and forcibly returned to his hometown of Yanshan Town, where he was detained in a local hotel. When he tried to commit suicide, officials released him on October 3 after making him sign a paper promising never to petition again. Peng has been petitioning for over ten years for redress of grievances related to a contract dispute with local officials. (CHRD)[xii]

Guangdong Officials Detain Five Villagers for Petitioning

On September 22, police detained five farmers who represented residents from the villages surrounding Longcun Town, Wuhua County, Guangdong Province for “damaging production management” after they travelled to the Guangdong Provincial Government offices to petition. The representatives were seeking proper distribution of profits from irrigation and reservoir-sharing projects in their villages. On October 21, two of the representatives (Wen Liangsheng (温良胜) and Peng Xizhao (彭锡照)) were released from detention, but threatened by local officials not to petition again. The other three petitioners remain detained in the Wuhua County Detention Center. (CHRD)[xiii]

Petitioner, Detained During National Day Holiday, Describes Previously Unknown Black Jails in Beijing

On October 24, CHRD staff interviewed veteran petitioner Mao Yuanze (毛元泽), who described his detention in a succession of black jails in Beijing during the National Day period. Of these black jails, some, including a detention facility established in Hongsi Village, Chaoyang District by the Yuanding Security Company, and another near the administrative offices for Hongbo Park, also in Beijing’s Chaoyang District, were previously unknown. Mao, from Suiyang County, Guizhou Province, has been petitioning for years because of unresolved problems at the factory where he was employed. In his interview, Mao described how he and other detainees in the black jails were strip searched, had personal items confiscated, were guarded 24 hours a day by security personnel and dogs, and how men and women of all ages were jailed in one crowded room. Mao was detained from September 30 to October 10. (CHRD)[xiv]

Freedom of Expression

Website of Guangzhou Magazine Blocked for Reprinting Article on Internet Regulation

The official website of “Window of Southern Breeze” (南风窗), a Guangzhou-based magazine published by the Guangzhou Daily News Corporation, abruptly stopped working on Monday, October 26. Staff at the magazine suspect the website was blocked by the authorities after it reprinted an article originally appearing in the October 21st print edition of the magazine which examined problems with Chinese internet policies. The article, which was also reprinted on major domestic web portals, including Netease (易网) and, has since been removed from some, but not all, of these sites. (CHRD)[xv]

Chongqing Upper Court Hears Appeal of Pan-Blue Alliance of Chinese Nationalists Member Zhang Qi

On October 26, in Chongqing’s Qijiang Courthouse, the Chongqing Upper Court heard the appeal of Pan-Blue Alliance of Chinese Nationalists member Zhang Qi (张起), who was sentenced to four years in prison for “inciting subversion of state power” in July after posting a series of critical articles online. Zhang was represented by lawyers Ma Xiaopeng (马小鹏) and Zheng Jianwei (郑建伟), who entered a plea of not guilty on his behalf. The trial concluded without a verdict, and court officials stated they would pick a date in the future to announce their ruling. (CHRD)[xvi]

Blogs Established by Free China Forum Closed by Censors

On October 24, blogs established on mainland websites by the Free China Forum (自由中国论坛), one of the mainland’s most influential websites for political discussion and debate, were closed by internet authorities. While the blogs, which were hosted on sites such as Tianya, remain unavailable, the Free China Forum, which is hosted on an overseas server, can be accessed at (CHRD)[xvii]

Persecution of Activists

Guangdong Environmentalist Left Homeless After Years of Abuse at the Hands of Officials

On October 25, CHRD interviewed Nan’ao County, Guangdong Province activist Wu Laixi (吴来喜), who has been left homeless and destitute as a result of retribution from local officials for his environmentalism. In 1998, Wu, an employee in the environmental protection office of the Houzhai Town government, met with central government officials and members of the media who had arrived in Guangdong on a fact-finding mission, and described to them local environmental problems and government corruption. Following a thorough investigation, domestic media outlets, including Xinhua, People’s Daily, and CCTV, reported widely on the situation in Nan’ao. Local officials, furious at being exposed, retaliated against Wu Laixi and other individuals responsible for reporting on the abuses, stripping Wu of his civil service job, refusing to pay his salary or benefits, and beating him on three occasions. Wu has been petitioning for redress since 1998, and during the past twelve years has continued to suffer beatings, torture, and arbitrary detention, including being sent to RTL for twenty-two months between December 2005 and October 2007. (CHRD)[xviii]

Persecution of Petitioners

Seeking Accountability for Family-Planning Violence, Fujian Petitioner Repeatedly Detained

On October 29, CHRD interviewed Guo Shuifeng (郭水凤), 43, a petitioner from Shanhou Village, Xiadao Town, Yanping District, Nanping City, Fujian Province. Guo has been petitioning to seek official accountability for a serious infection and kidney failure she suffered following a forced sterilization procedure by town health officials in April, 2000, which was performed with improperly sterilized equipment. Guo recounted how she was kidnapped and forced to undergo the procedure after she had her second child, and how local government officials refused to accept responsibility when their actions resulted in serious medical consequences for Guo and financial difficulties for her family. Since April 2004, Guo has been petitioning in Beijing, and local officials have intercepted and detained her on a number of occasions. Most recently, in April 2009, Guo was forcibly returned to Jianping District and detained a total of 13 days for “improper petitioning;” after she was released, local officials ran a story on her case on local TV to warn others not to take their grievances to the capital. Officials further threatened Guo that they would “lock her up until death” if she continued to petition. (CHRD)[xix]

Independence of Judges and Lawyers

Fujian Prosecutors Request Removal of Lawyer from Case of Detained Activist Fan Yanqiong

On September 30, officials from the Mawei District, Fuzhou City Procuratorate requested the dismissal of defense lawyer Lin Zhong (林忠) from the case of Fan Yanqiong (范燕琼), who has been detained since late June on suspicion of “making false charges” in association with articles she posted online about the death of rape victim Yan Xiaoling (严晓玲). On October 12, Lin’s employer, Fujian Province’s Fawei Law Firm, issued a statement protesting the Procuratorate’s illegal request. According to the Procuratorate, Lin should be removed from the case because he formerly served as a public prosecutor; however, as his law firm pointed out, the law states only that a former public prosecutor is prohibited from acting as a defense lawyer for two years following the end of service for the state. Lin left the procuratorate over 20 years ago. (CHRD)[xx]

Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Demonstration

Five Hundred Bank Employees Gather to Protest in Beijing

On the morning of October 26, close to 500 employees of China’s four largest banks (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Agricultural Bank of China, China Construction Bank, and the Bank of China) gathered in Beijing’s financial district to protest, calling for bank officials to resolve their longstanding complaints regarding pensions and inadequate compensation. According to a Mr. Yang, an employee of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China from Guizhou Province, the demonstrators were all employees who had been forced to accept buy-outs in recent years, and have been having difficulty making ends meet as they were not provided with appropriate compensation. A woman from Hubei said that many policemen were present at the site, but she does not know whether police arrested anybody. A similar protest, joined by perhaps as many as ten thousand former bank employees, took place in February; government and bank officials have yet to act on the group’s complaints. (CHRD)[xxi]

Demobilized Officers Protest outside PLA Offices

On the morning of October 26, hundreds of demobilized People’s Liberation Army (PLA) officers from across the country, some in full military regalia, gathered outside of the offices of the General Political Department of the PLA in Beijing to petition, calling on the officials within to address their grievances regarding compensation and work arrangements following military service. According to an officer surnamed Zhang (), three officers from Gansu had been detained during demonstrations the previous day, while numerous others had been prevented from travelling to the capital or intercepted en route. The officers, who left the army between 1993 and 1999, were given retirement settlements similar to corporate buyouts, and following their departure from the military the government has ceased to honor the settlements. (CRLW)[xxii]

Anhui Officials Prevent Veterans’ Rally, Forcibly Return Attendees

More than three hundred veterans of the Korean War planned to gather on the morning of October 24 in a Hefei City park to commemorate the 59th anniversary of the war, but authorities intervened to prevent the majority of veterans from attending. Local officials across Anhui Province placed veterans under surveillance and house arrest to keep them from leaving their homes, while neighborhood committee officials arrived at the scene of the rally before dawn on Saturday to block veterans from entering the park. Though around one hundred veterans were able to evade interference and gather in the park, they were then seized and forcibly returned to their hometowns by interceptors. (CHRD)[xxiii]

Tens of Thousands Hold 3-Day March to Protest Incinerator Construction in Jiangsu Town

Tens of thousands of Wujiang City, Pingwang Town residents took to the streets in a demonstration lasting from October 21 through the 23rd to protest the planned construction of a garbage incinerator near a residential neighborhood. Local officials mobilized thousands of police to control the marchers, and there have been reports of clashes between the protestors and police, with a number of protestors sustaining injuries. At least sixteen protestors have been detained. (CHRD)[xxiv]

Citizens’ Actions

Lawyer Submits Suggestions for Amendments to National Election Law

In an open letter to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress obtained by CHRD, Zhejiang lawyer Wang Cheng (王成) has submitted six proposed amendments to the National Elections Law. Included among the proposals are the suggestions that delegates to the National People’s Congress become full-time, specialized government officials for the duration of their term, paid with public funds, and that direct elections for People’s Congress representatives expand from the present county-level townships to district-level governments under municipalities. For the full text of the letter (in Chinese), please click here.

Law and Policy Watch

State Council Issues Guidelines Regulating Management of Private Security Guards

On October 19, the State Council published the “Public Security Service Management Regulations (保安服务管理条例)”, slated to take effect on January 1, 2010. The guidelines, designed to regulate the use of private security guards in public places and prohibit collusion between public officials and private security companies, places the operations of private security guards at all levels under the management of Public Security Bureau officials. (Xinhua)[xxv]

In recent years, private security guards have been responsible for a litany of rights abuses, as they are often used by local officials to help carry out forced evictions, break up protests and rallies, and otherwise provide force when asked by police or government authorities. As they often intervene in such events on the request of the government, they are allowed to operate with relative impunity. While these regulations, if effectively enforced, could vastly reduce the rights abuses perpetrated by security guards, there is little hope that local officials will be willing to abandon one of their more effective tools for controlling the public so easily.

Editors: David Smalls and Lin Sang

[i] “Overturn the Second-Level Court’s Ruling, Then Accuse the Prosecutor (推翻两级法院判决 才能控告检察官)”, October 29, 2009,

[ii] “Shanghai Resident Shen Peilan Beaten While Trying to Visit Zheng Enchong (上海市民沈佩兰在探望郑恩宠时被殴打)”, October 29, 2009,

[iii] “Xiaochang Teacher Beaten; Hongan Teachers Detained, Fined (湖北孝昌民师遭打断肋骨 红安民师被拘留罚款)”, October 28, 2009,

[iv] “‘Charter 08’ Signatory Luo Yongquan Issues Cry for Help from Jail《零八宪章》签署人罗勇泉从狱中发出求救)”, Octber 25, 2009,

[v] “Court Does Not Allow Plaintiff Chen Yang to Attend own Hearing (法庭不准当事人陈杨出庭)”, October 29, 2009,

[vi]Shandong Youth Xue Mingkai Tried for ‘Subversion of State Power’ (山东青年薛明凯被以颠覆国家政权罪审判)”, October 30, 2009,

[vii] “Many Zhejiang Black Protestors, Black Jail Victims Detained (浙江多名抗议黑监狱的受害者被抓捕)”, October 29, 2009,

[viii] “Zeng Xiaofeng, of Zigong, Forcibly Returned and Detained in Black Jail (自贡曾孝凤押回属地关进黑监狱事件)”, October 30, 2009,

[ix] “Six Doumen, Zhuhai Activists Criminally Detained (珠海斗门6维权代表被刑拘)”, October 28, 2009,

[x] “Pregnant Woman Suffers Miscarriage while Detained for Filing for Administrative Review on Behalf of Father (孕妇为父亲劳教提行政复议遭拘留迫害流产)”, October 27, 2009,

[xi] “Wuhan Petitioner Seized Following Clash at Provincial Committee Offices (武汉访民省委上访再次发生冲突抓走一人 )”, October 26, 2009,

[xii] “Villager Detained for Petitioning about Contract Violation (村民因承包经营权被侵害上访被关押)”, October 27, 2009,

[xiii] “Five Wuhua Farmers’ Representatives Detained for Petitioning (广东五华五位上访农民代表遭拘留)”, October 24, 2009,

[xiv] “Petitioner Mao Yuanze Detained in Newly-Opened Black Jail (访民毛元泽遭遇北京新近开办的“黑监狱”)”, October 26, 2009,

[xv] “Official Website of ‘Southern Window’ Abruptly Halts Operations (《南风窗》官方网站突然停止运作)”, October 28, 2009,

[xvi] “Chongqing Upper Court Hears Zhang Qi’s Appeals Case (重庆高院在綦江审理张起上诉案)”, October 26, 2009,

[xvii] “Free China Forum Blogs on Domestic Sites All Closed (自由中国论坛在国内开设的博客全部被封闭)”, October 24, 2009,

[xviii] “Stripped of Job, Sent to RTL for Reporting on Environmental Protection Issues (因举报环保问题遭开除公职及劳教)”, October 26, 2009,

[xix] “Government’s Illegal Forced Sterilization Leads to Medical Mishap, Appeals Come to Nothing (政府违法强制绝育,酿医疗事故诉求无门)”, October 30, 2009,

[xx] “Mawei Procuratorate Seeks to Dismiss Lin Zhong, Lawyer for Fan Yanxiong (马尾检察院要撤换范燕琼的代理律师林忠)”, October 27, 2009,

[xxi] “Five Hundred Employees of Four Major Banks Gather to Protest in Beijing (全国四大银行近500名职工集体维权示威)”, October 27, 2009,

[xxii] “Hundreds of Demobilized Officers Gather to Petition (全国复员军官数百人至总政治部上访请愿)”, October 26, 2009,

[xxiii] “Anhui Veterans’ 59th Anniversary Korean War Rally Aborted by Government (安徽老兵集会纪念抗美援朝59周年被政府干预流产)”, October 26, 2009,

[xxiv] “Tens of Thousands Join Demonstrations in Wujiang City, Pingwang Town, Jiangsu Province (江苏吴江平望镇数万居民连续举行抗议示威)”, October 25, 2009,

[xxv] “State Council Issues “Public Security Service Management Regulations (国务院公布《保安服务管理条例》)”, October 19, 2009,

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