China Human Rights Briefings October 31-November 6, 2009

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China Human Rights Briefing

October 31-November 6

Week in Review

  • The plight of petitioners detained in ‘black jails’, as well as their resistance against such form of arbitrary detention, were highlighted by three cases CHRD documented this week: Liaoning petitioner Wang Tianlai, who were severely beaten in a Beijing black jail; three Zhejiang petitioners who protested against their detentions outside the local Procuratorate; and Anhui petitioner Li Ruirui, who filed a lawsuit against a black jail guard who raped her. The latter two cases also illustrate the unfortunate but all-too-familiar pattern where black jail victims are subjected to further degrading treatment when they attempt to protest their detentions.
  • The news that dissident Yang Tianshui and activist Huang Qi are seriously ill while incarcerated raise alarms over the treatment of detainees in Chinese prisons and detention centers. CHRD is seriously concerned that Yang and Huang are joining a long list of prisoners of conscience who are ill and yet whose applications for release for medical treatment are routinely denied or delayed in responding to by the government.

Please click here for China Human Rights Briefing October 31 November 6, 2009 in PDF format

Table of Contents

Freedom of Religion

Scholar at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Dismissed for House-Church Activism

Torture and Other Cruel, Unusual, or Inhumane Treatment

Medical Treatment Denied to Elderly Couple Injured by Police Beating

Elderly Woman Beaten during Land Expropriation

Jiangsu Dissident Imprisoned for Political Writings Critically Ill in Jail

Liaoning Petitioners Seriously Injured in Beating While Detained in Black Jail

Beijing Court Hears Case of Petitioner Allegedly Raped By Guard in Black Jail

Shanghai Citizens Beaten For Attempting to File Lawsuit

Arbitrary Detention

Hangzhou and Hubei Farmers Incarcerated in Connection to Land Disputes with Government

Beijing Activist, Detained for 85 Days, May Face Charges or RTL

Former Bank Employees Detained for Participating in Protest

Three Months after Trial, No Verdict in Huang Qi’s Case as His Health Deteriorates

Democracy Activist Missing for More than One Month

Freedom of Association and Assembly

One Released, Two Still Detained Following Black Jail Protests in Hangzhou

Police Briefly Detain Activist Yao Lifa, Disrupting Get-Together with Foreign Journalists

Freedom of Expression

Fujian Activists Imprisoned for Online Reporting to Be Tried Next Week

Beijing News Removes Editorial Critical of a Local Government from Website

Harassment of Activists

Guangdong Activist Summoned for Collecting Signatures in Beijing

Right to Housing and Land

After Forced Eviction, Chongqing Families Left Homeless

Citizens’ Actions

Guangxi Villagers Injured, Detained for Resisting Forced Demolition

Teachers from Community-Run Schools Protest in Hubei Province

Hundreds of Laid-off Grain Workers Protest in Chongqing

Law and Policy Watch

Newly-Amended Compensation Law to Include Abuse in Detention Centers, Prisons

Freedom of Religion

Scholar at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Dismissed for House-Church Activism

Scholar Dr. Fan Yafeng (范亚峰), an associate researcher at the Law Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, was dismissed by officials at the academy on November 3, 2009, for “political” reasons. Dr. Fan, a constitutional scholar, is the leader of a Christian house church in Beijing and has been active for a long time in defending the rights of fellow Christians who face persecution for their religious activities. Authorities have recently increased their pressure on house churches in the capital, and Dr. Fan’s firing demonstrates the scope of officials’ efforts to intimidate and threaten individuals seeking to exercise or defend their freedom of religion. (CHRD)[i]

Torture and Other Cruel, Unusual, or Inhumane Treatment

Medical Treatment Denied to Elderly Couple Injured by Police Beating

CHRD learned on November 5 that after an elderly couple, Gao Weisen (高维森), 64, and his wife, Li Maoxiu (李茂秀), 54, was severely beaten by a group of policemen, the local police authorities have refused to provide them with medical treatment for their injuries. The local police have also failed to arrest the alleged assailants. The couple, of Houcun Town, Lanshan District, Rizhao City, Shandong Province, were kicked, beaten, dragged and thrown onto the ground by a handful of policemen from Lanshan District Public Security Bureau (PSB) Houcun Town Subdivision, outside of the district government office building on May 19. The couple had wanted to meet with the district’s Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Secretary to seek compensation for Gao, who lost a finger in an industrial accident while working for a government collective in 1976. The police were called after the Secretary declined a meeting and the couple refused to leave. (CHRD)[ii]

Elderly Woman Beaten during Land Expropriation

On November 3, Xin Yingmei (辛英梅), a Henan woman in her 70s, was beaten and briefly detained by a crew of about 30 local policemen and officials led by the vice-secretary of the Zhaoji Town CCP. Xin, of Committee 16, Lintou Village, Zhaoji Town, Dengzhou City, alleges that the beating was a punishment for resisting the government’s expropriation of village land, which she claims to own, without legal procedures or offering of compensation. Xin is now receiving treatment at Dengzhou People’s Hospital. (CHRD)[iii]

Jiangsu Dissident Imprisoned for Political Writings Critically Ill in Jail

Yang Tianshui (杨天水), a dissident writer from Jiangsu incarcerated in Nanjing Prison, is critically ill, CHRD learned today. Yang’s sister, Yang Guixiang (杨桂香), told CHRD that her brother was currently receiving treatment in a prison hospital for tuberculosis, diabetes, kidney inflammation, and high blood pressure, and that he has been receiving treatment in a prison hospital since mid-September without improvement. Another sister, Yang Tongmei (杨同美), was able to visit Yang Tianshui in prison on October 27, 2009, and reported he looked very frail. Yang Tianshui, a longtime dissident and author of numerous political essays, is currently serving a 12-year prison sentence for “inciting subversion of state power.” His family plans to apply for release on bail for medical treatment, as the care he is currently receiving in the hospital has not been effective. (CHRD)[iv]

Liaoning Petitioners Seriously Injured in Beating While Detained in Black Jail

Wang Tianlai (王天来), a petitioner from Dazhaotai Village, Shoushan Township, Liaoyang County, Liaoning Province, was seriously injured after being beaten while detained in a black jail in Beijing, CHRD learned today. Wang, a former truck driver, had been petitioning because of a dispute with traffic police in Anhui Province over their handling of a traffic accident. On August 20, 2009, he was seized in Beijing and detained in Majialou, a central black jail for petitioners in the capital. Individuals claiming to be officials from the Beijing Liaison Office of the Liaoning Provincial Government, who refused to produce any identification, tried to take him away along with three other petitioners — Wang Xiaopeng (王晓朋), Guang Tiesheng (关铁生), and Yang Sukun (杨素坤). When they protested, they were brutally beaten. Wang Tianlai suffered broken ribs and injuries to his ears and abdomen in the attack. (CHRD)[v]

Beijing Court Hears Case of Petitioner Allegedly Raped By Guard in Black Jail

On the morning of November 4, 2009, Beijing’s Fengati District People’s Court heard a lawsuit by Anhui petitioner Li Ruirui (李蕊蕊) accusing Xu Jian (徐建), a guard at a Beijing black jail, of rape. According to Li Ruirui, she was raped on August 3, 2009, while held in the Juyuan Hostel, a black jail run by the Beijing Liaison Office of the Henan Provincial Government. The trial was held behind closed doors, and only Li, her father, and lawyer Zhang Xin (张鑫) were allowed to attend. According to both Li and her lawyer, the presiding judge did not allow them to fully present their case, interrupting them and preventing them from speaking on numerous occasions. The trial concluded without a verdict. (CRLW)[vi]

Shanghai Citizens Beaten For Attempting to File Lawsuit

On August 20, 2009, a group of eleven Shanghai residents arrived at the No. 1 Intermediate People’s Court to file an administrative lawsuit against the Luwan District government. The staff member at the courthouse who accepted their lawsuit refused to provide the group with an official receipt stating that the lawsuit had been accepted, and when the plaintiffs demanded that the official do so, more than 40 court officials, police, and guards rushed into the room and forcibly removed the group of eleven, beating them in the process. The victims, including Fan Shiming (范诗铭), Huang Youwu (黄幼吾), and Qiu Tieer (邱铁儿), have attempted to seek justice for the violence they suffered, but despite having presented medical records and other concrete evidence to authorities, officials at the No. 1 Court and other Shanghai courthouses have refused to handle the matter. (CHRD)[vii]

Arbitrary Detention

Update on Detained Democracy Activist Who Tells of Hardships in Labor Camp

CHRD learnt that Luo Yongquan (罗勇泉), a poet and a member of the banned China Democratic Party, has been forced to work between 12 and 13 hours daily and subjected to tight monitoring 24 hours a day in Sanshui Re-education through Labor Camp, Guangdong Province. A detainee recently released from the same camp told CHRD that Luo suffers from headaches and is losing weight. CHRD reported in late October that Luo is unable to pay for basic items such as food and shoes in the camp due to financial hardships. Luo, from Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province, was sent to two years of RTL for publishing poems that “attack the Party and the government” in May 2009. (CHRD)[viii]

Hangzhou and Hubei Farmers Incarcerated in Connection to Land Disputes with Government

Yang Yunbiao (杨云彪),a Zhejiang farmer, has been formally arrested for “damaging production management” on October 29. Yang’s farmland in Zhuantang Town, Xihu District, Hangzhou City was allegedly forcibly expropriated by the local government in 2005, and the adjoining houses were forcibly demolished in 2007. In 2007, Yang was arrested while resisting the demolition of his home and served one and a half years in prison for “impeding official business”. Upon his release, Yang has been petitioning higher authorities requesting that he be allowed to farm the land again, because it has not been developed since it was expropriated in 2005. It is believed that Yang has been arrested for petitioning and for persisting in resisting land eviction. (CRLW)[ix]

In a separate incident, police in Qianjiang, Hubei Province took three elected village representatives into custody on November 5. The three, Dong Xiaohua (董晓华), Ding Cuiyun (丁翠云, f), and An Guoping (晏国平, f), were elected by villagers in Group No. 1, Shenhe Village, under the jurisdiction of the Forest Management Office, Qianjiang City, to represent them in their negotiations with the local government to resolve land disputes. The villagers’ land was expropriated by the government more than 10 years ago but they have persisted in protesting, petitioning and using other ways to air their grievances and seek compensation. A week before the detentions, villagers clashed with local officials while demanding compensation. The three are now held in Yuanlin Police Station in Qianjiang City, which has been surrounded by at least 60 villagers since their detention, demanding their release. (CHRD)[x]

Beijing Activist, Detained for 85 Days, May Face Charges or RTL

CHRD has learned that Beijing activist Zhou Li (周莉), who has been detained since August 12, 2009, may soon be formally charged with a crime or sent to Re-education through Labor. Zhou, who first became involved in defending human rights when she provided legal aid to victims of forced demolition in 2007, is currently detained in the Daxing District Detention Center. Police originally claimed that she would be released following the National Day celebrations. Her family has reportedly been harassed and threatened by police, to the point that they will not consent to hire a lawyer to represent Zhou. (CHRD)[xi]

Former Bank Employees Detained for Participating in Protest

Pan Xiangrong (潘向荣) and Huang Hangzhi(黄行芝), two laid-off bank employees from Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, have been under residential surveillance since September 1, 2009. On October 24, they managed to escape and travelled to Beijing, where they took part in protests with other former bank employees on October 26 in Beijing’s financial district. They were seized at the scene and are currently being detained at the Beijing Liaison Office of the Qianjiang City government. (CHRD)[xii]

Three Months after Trial, No Verdict in Huang Qi’s Case as His Health Deteriorates

Family members of Sichuan activist Huang Qi (黄琦) are concerned about his health, as they have not been able to contact him since he was tried for “illegal possession of state secrets” on August 5. According to Huang’s wife, Zeng Li (曾丽), when Huang appeared in court his lawyers reported that he was emaciated, had two tumors growing on his chest and stomach, and was suffering from headaches and heart troubles. Huang’s lawyers applied for release on bail for medical treatment for their client months ago, but authorities never responded. It has been close to three months since Huang’s trial took place behind closed doors, and the court has yet to issue a verdict; Huang has been detained for more than 16 months in total since he was seized in June 2008 for reporting and giving interviews to foreign journalists about protests staged by families of schoolchildren killed in the Sichuan earthquake in May 2008. (CHRD)[xiii]

Democracy Activist Missing for More than One Month

Guo Yongfeng (郭永丰), Shenzhen democracy activist and organizer of the Citizens’ Association for Government Oversight (公民监政会), went missing on September 16, shortly after learning that a Shenzhen court had accepted his lawsuit challenging the Public Order Branch of the Shenzhen Municipal Public Security Bureau’s decision to lock him up for administrative detention earlier this year. The suit was set to be heard on September 29; friends and fellow activists believed that his disappearance was related to this hearing or possibly to the National Day holiday, yet, more than a month later, his whereabouts remain unknown. No one has been able to contact Guo’s family, and sources report that his family members have been relocated from their former home. (CHRD)[xiv]

Freedom of Association and Assembly

Police Intervene in Large-Scale Strike at Chongqing State-Owned Factory

Since November 4, nearly one thousand workers from four factories under Jialing Group, a Chongqing state-owned enterprise, have been on strike. The strike was sparked by the company’s plan to lay-off 5,000 workers by the end of December. The workers allege that the company, known for the production of Jialing Motorcycles, is not properly compensating them according to the relevant national regulations. In response to the strike, plainclothes policemen have been dispatched to closely watch the workers. Two workers were briefly detained by the police on November 5 for being the suspected organizers of the industrial action. Local authorities have also warned the workers against informing the media, especially foreign media, about the strike. The workers said the strike will continue at least until next Wednesday, when the company management promised to negotiate and respond to their demands. (CHRD)[xv]

One Released, Two Still Detained Following Black Jail Protests in Hangzhou

Last week, CHRD reported that police had seized more than ten activists and petitioners who were protesting outside of the Zhejiang Supreme People’s Procuratorate in Hangzhou over arbitrary detention in black jails they had suffered during the National Day celebrations. On November 3, 2009, CHRD learned that, of those seized, Huang Limin (黄利民) and Huang Liying (黄利英) were sent to seven days of administrative detention and remain detained. A third detainee, Qiu Yumei (裘玉梅), was released on the morning of November 3 after five days of administrative detention. All three were detained for “disrupting the working order of the Procuratorate.” (CHRD)[xvi]

Police Briefly Detain Activist Yao Lifa, Disrupting Get-Together with Foreign Journalists

On the afternoon of November 1, plainclothes police officers and fellow teachers interrupted a dinner being hosted by elections expert and democracy activist Yao Lifa (姚立法) for some German journalist friends in Qianjiang City, Hubei Province. According to Yao, the police disrupted the meal and forced him to leave because they were concerned he was giving an interview to one of the journalists, who works for the Deustche Presse Agenteur in Beijing. Yao was interrogated by police and briefly held at the school where he is employed until his friends had left Qianjiang, at which point he was allowed to return home. (CHRD)[xvii]

Freedom of Expression

Fujian Activists Imprisoned for Online Reporting to Be Tried Next Week

CHRD learned today that the trial of Fujian activists Fan Yanqiong (范燕琼), Wu Huaying (吴华英), and You Jingyou (游精佑), accused of “making false charges” (诬告陷害), is scheduled to be heard by the Mawei District People’s Court in Fuzhou City, Fuzhou Province on November 11, 2009. The three, who were formally arrested earlier this year after posting articles online alleging official misconduct and attempts to cover up criminal acts surrounding the alleged rape and suspicious death of Yan Xiaoling, a young woman from Minqing County, Fujian, will be tried together in an open trial, according notice issued by the court. (CHRD)[xviii]

Beijing News Removes Editorial Critical of a Local Government from Website

In an illustrative example of how China’s cyber patrol censors articles in the official media, an editorial by noted scholar Qiu Feng (秋风) which ran in the print edition of the Beijing News (新京报) has been removed from the paper’s official website, CHRD has learned. The editorial concerned a lawsuit brought against the Xingtai City, Hebei Province Government for failing to pay a promised investment bonus to a local businessman who brought a Hong Kong business to Xingtai. (CHRD)[xix]

Harassment of Activists

Guangdong Activist Summoned for Collecting Signatures in Beijing

On the morning of November 3, 2009, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province petitioner-turned-activist Wu Guangzhou (吴光周) was collecting signatures outside of Beijing’s South Railway Station for a petition calling for an end to all forms of arbitrary detention and better treatment of petitioners. Wu planned to send the petition to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Around noon, police surrounded Wu and took him to the Youanmen Police Station, where he was interrogated for close to six hours before being released. Police never presented Wu, who has been petitioning for six years because of a dispute with his former employer, with any legal warrant for the interrogation. (CHRD)[xx]

Right to Housing and Land

After Forced Eviction, Chongqing Families Left Homeless

On October 31, nine families were forced out of their homes in Chongqing by a large crew of anti-riot policemen, paramilitaries and security guards dispatched by the local government. The families, whose personal belongings were confiscated by the crew, said they were evicted without having settled on a compensation agreement with the government. Immediately after they were forced out of their homes in Zhi Alley, Shengli Road, Yubei District, Chongqing Municipality, members of the crew forced the evictees to sign a document agreeing that they would move to housing in remote parts of the city that were of ‘equal value’ to the ones they were evicted from. They were briefly provided with accommodation and food after they complained to the authorities. But they were soon asked to leave. They are now living on the street, begging to make ends meet, as well as staging a protest. (CHRD)[xxi]

Citizens’ Actions

Guangxi Villagers Injured, Detained for Resisting Forced Demolition

According to Xu Kun (许坤), an elected village committee director from Baihutou Village, Yintan Town, Beihai City, Guangxi Province, eight Baihutou villagers have been criminally detained and two hospitalized following a clash with police over the forced demolition of the village committee building in Baihutou. When villagers learned that the local government sought to take control of village property and forcibly demolish the building on October 30, hundreds gathered to prevent the demolition from being carried out. They were met by between 200 and 300 police officers and local officials, and in the conflict that followed a total of ten villagers were seized and two elderly residents hospitalized. Of the ten seized, two were later released, while eight were criminally detained on suspicion of “impairing official business.” Xu further reported that police have put local leaders under surveillance, and that he himself has fled the village and gone into hiding. (CHRD)[xxii]

Teachers from Community-Run Schools Protest in Hubei Province

On the morning of November 2, 2009, more than 200 former community-run (minban) schoolteachers from 13 villages and towns in Qianjiang City, Hubei Province gathered outside of the Qianjiang Department of Education to protest, calling for the government to live up to its responsibilities to the teachers. Millions of such local rural schoolteachers in China enjoy no government-subsidized benefits or retirement funds. According to one teacher at the scene, representatives of the group engaged in discussions with officials about three issues: the government’s failure to transfer minban teachers to the government payroll in the years between 2000 and 2003, as directed by the provincial government; the government’s failure to provide retirement benefits and social security to retired minban teachers; and the government’s failure to establish a welfare fund for minban teachers, as called for by the State Council. (CHRD)[xxiii]

Hundreds of Laid-off Grain Workers Protest in Chongqing

On the morning of November 2, close to 300 laid-off grain systems workers from Chongqing gathered outside the Chongqing Municipal Grain Corporation. The former workers, who had been forced to accept buyouts and yet provided with little or no compensation by their respective work units, were petitioning for proper retirement arrangements and to expose corruption by managers at individual granaries. According to one worker at the scene, many individuals who had intended to participate were prevented from leaving their homes or traveling to the site by police. (CRLW)[xxiv]

Law and Policy Watch

Newly-Amended Compensation Law to Include Abuse in Detention Centers, Prisons

According to a Xinhua report,[xxv] on October 27, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress began its third round of deliberations on amendments to the national Compensation Law, and for the first time considered including detention centers under the national compensation guidelines. According to the newly-amended draft, detention centers will be responsible for compensating any citizens whose rights are violated at any point during their detention. Furthermore, the government organ responsible for deciding an individual’s case will be responsible for compensating them for the time spent in detention if the citizen is later found not guilty or has the charges against them dropped before going to trial.

However, CHRD is concerned that the amendment under consideration falls far short of being a useful tool for preventing these abuses because it does not provide a clear method of overseeing these facilities. Much in the same way that government organs are expected to hold themselves accountable when investigating allegations of torture, detention center staff are now supposed to hold themselves responsible for rights abuses and provide compensation when appropriate. Without independent oversight, detention center officials have few incentives, but a great conflict of interest, in following this new law.

Editors: David Smalls and Lin Sang


[i] “Beijing Scholar and House Church Leader Dr. Fan Yafeng Fired for ‘Political’ Reasons (北京学者教会领袖范亚峰博士被以”政治”原因开除)”, November 3, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091103222019_18086.html

[ii] CHRD, “Policemen from Rizhao, Shandong, Beat and Injured Elderly Couple, Then Refused to Deal with Their Injuries (山东日照警察打残老夫妇不作处理)”, November 5, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091105150910_18115.html

[iii] CHRD, “Vice CCP Secretary of Zhaoji Town, Dengzhou, Henan Province Beat and Injured Woman in Her 70s (河南邓州赵集镇党委副书记殴伤七旬老太)”, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091105152738_18116.html

[iv] “Nanjing Dissident Yang Tianshui Critically Ill in Prison(南京异议作家杨天水狱中病危)”, November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class18/Class23/200911/20091104123811_18092.html

[v] “Liaoning Petitioners Seriously Injured After Beating in Beijing (辽宁访民在北京被毒打致残)”, November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/fmzj/200911/20091104173956_18096.html

[vi] “Case of Female Petitioner Raped in Black Jail Tried in Closed Court in Beijing (女访民黑监狱内被强奸案在北京不公开开庭)”, November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/bzsf/200911/20091104153209_18094.html

[vii] “Truly Great! Shanghai Number One People’s Court Registers Lawsuit (真牛!上海市第一中级人民法院立案庭)”, November 1, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091101210738_18042.html

[viii] CHRD, “Signatory to Charter 08 Discusses His Recent Situation in Prison (《零八宪章》签署人罗勇泉狱中近况)”, November 6, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/lingbaxianzhang/200911/20091106090236_18137.html

[ix] CRLW, “Yang Yunbiao, a farmer in Hangzhou advocating for his rights, has been formally arrested (杭州维权农民杨云彪被正式逮捕),” November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/bzsf/200911/20091104233853_18103.html

[x] CHRD, “Police Arrested Elected Representatives in Hubei (潜江市申河村的民选代表被抓)”, November 5, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091105233129_18126.html

[xi] “Beijing Activist Zhou Li Detained for Extended Period of Time; May be Sentenced Soon (北京维权人士周莉遭超期羁押,近期可能被判刑)”, November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091104105104_18090.html

[xii] “Many Qianjiang City Laid-off Bank Employees Deprived of Personal Freedoms (湖北多名银行买断职工被限制自由)”, November 3, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091103133216_18066.html

[xiii] “Family Worried about Huang Qi’s Health in Prison (黄琦狱中健康令人担忧)”, November 2, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class18/huangqi/200911/20091102114425_18048.html

[xiv] “Shenzhen Human Rights Activist Guo Yongfeng and Family Have Lost Contact with Outside World (深圳维权人士郭永丰全家与外界失去联系)”, October 31, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200910/20091031083706_18020.html

[xv] CHRD, “Jialing Group Workers Continue to Strike; the Group Claims that It will Respond Next Wednesday (嘉陵集团工人继续罢工 集团声称下周三答复)”, November 6, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091106193459_18143.html; CHRD, “Nearly a Thousand Workers on Strike at Chongqing Jialing Group, Two Workers Taken into Custody (重庆嘉陵集团近千人罢工 两工人被抓)”, November 5, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091105213149_18123.html

[xvi] “Hangzhou Activist Qiu Yumei, Detained for Protesting Against Black Jail, Released(抗议黑监狱被拘留的杭州维权人士裘玉梅获释)”, November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091104095450_18087.html

[xvii] “Yao Lifa Taken Away During Banquet For Foreign Friend (姚立法为外国朋友设宴时被带往派出所)”, November 1, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091101221105_18044.html

[xviii] “Fujian’s Fan Yanqiong to Be Tried on the Eleventh; Shanghai’s Duan Chunfang Files Appeal (福建范燕琼案11号开庭,上海段春芳提起上诉)”, November 4, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091104202552_18099.html

[xix] “Beijing News Website Deletes Editorial (《新京报》网络版评论文章遭封锁)”, November 1, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091101113735_18034.html

[xx] “Guangdong Citizen Summoned for Collecting Signatures in Beijing (广东市民在北京征集签名时被传唤)”, November 3, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091103175932_18067.html

[xxi] CHRD, “Forced Evictees in Yubei District, Chongqing, Live on the Streets (重庆渝北区被强拆户集体流落街头)”, November 5, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091105094447_18105.html

[xxii] “Beihai Government Steals Village Director’s Official Seal, Criminally Detains Activist Villagers (北海政府强抢村主任公章 刑拘维权村民)”, November 3, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091103213037_18084.html

[xxiii] “Close to 200 Minban Teachers Gather to Protect Rights in Qianjiang (潜江市近两百民师集体维权)”, November 2, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/200911/20091102184711_18055.html

[xxiv] “Laid-off Chongqing Municipal Grain Corporation Workers Petition to Defend Rights (重庆市粮食集团下岗工人联合请愿维权), November 2, 2009, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/bzsf/200911/20091102154340_18051.html

[xxv] “National Compensation Law Amendment Includes Detention Centers (国家赔偿法修正案草案将看守所纳入赔偿义务机关范围)”, October 27, 2009, http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2009-10/27/content_12344306.htm; “Abuse, Whether at the Hands of Officials or With Their Consent, To Be Covered by New Compensation Law (虐待或放纵他人殴打虐待致公民伤亡将列入行政赔偿)”, October 27, 2009, http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2009-10/27/content_12344309.htm

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