China Human Rights Briefing May 18-24, 2010

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China Human Rights Briefing

May 18-24, 2010

To download this week’s CHRB as a .pdf file, please click here

Highlights

  • Beijing Tax Officials Launch New Investigation into Aizhixing: Prominent Beijing-based HIV/AIDS NGO Aizhixing has once again been targeted for inspection by Beijing tax officials. On the morning of May 19, two inspectors from the Beijing Local Taxation Bureau arrived at the organization’s offices, and after conducting a brief inspection left a notice demanding Aizhixing produce comprehensive tax records dating back to 2002 within the next two days. Aizhixing director Wan Yanhai (万延海), currently in exile in the United States, and others believe that Aizhixing is being illegally targeted by Beijing officials in order to pressure the organization into folding.
  • Guangxi Officials Retaliate against Villagers for Opposing Forced Eviction: Five residents of Baihutou Village, Beihai City, Guangxi Province, are currently in detention following a series of interrogations by Beihai City Public Security Bureau officers in recent days. Among those detained is elected village chief Xu Kun (许坤), who has led the villagers in their resistance to forced evictions and requisition of their land. Xu has been criminally detained on suspicion of “running an illegal business,” which is believed to be a trumped-up charge.

Contents

Freedom of Association

Beijing Tax Officials Launch Inspection of NGO Aizhixing, Demand Records by May 21

Arbitrary Detention

Shenzhen Democracy Activist Sentenced to Three Years in Prison for Distributing Falun Gong CDs

Long Delay in Verdict for Children’s Rights Activist Zhao Lianhai

Beijing Activist Yang Qiuyu Missing Following 20 Days of Detention

Update: Family of Detained Reporter Xu Yishun Finally Receives Re-education through Labor Notice

Disabled Anhui Petitioner Kidnapped, Forcibly Hospitalized

Shanghai Activist Mao Hengfeng Transferred to Re-education through Labor Camp

More Details Emerge Regarding Government Retaliation against Villagers in Guangxi Province

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Henan Petitioner Hospitalized after Beating during Forced Return from Beijing

Detained Xinjiang Petitioner Suffers as Injuries from Police Beating Go Untreated

Hundreds of Inmates Begin Hunger Strike to Protest Mistreatment in Jilin Province

Zeng Jinyan Submits Sixth Application for Hu Jia’s Release on Medical Parole

Harassment of Activists

Beijing Activist Qi Zhiyong Kept under “Soft Detention” during Sino-US Dialogue

Leading Human Rights Lawyer Mo Shaoping Pressured into Skipping Symposium at Qinghua University

Officials in Hunan Request Activist Xie Qiang Return to Resign from Government Post

Freedom of Expression

Anhui Schoolteacher Criminally Detained for Internet Post Regarding School Violence

German Volunteer Teacher Forced to Close Blog on Rural Education

Citizens’ Actions

Hundreds Protest “Unfair Rulings” Outside of Supreme People’s Court

Freedom of Assembly

Wuxi Activist Hua Chunhui and Friend Detained for Meeting with Hangzhou Activists

Law and Policy Watch

Supreme People’s Court Calls on Lower Courts to Examine Lawsuits against Government, Rule according to Law

Supreme People’s Court to Address Juror Regulations

Freedom of Association

Beijing Tax Officials Launch Inspection of NGO Aizhixing, Demand Records by May 21

On the morning of May 19, two inspectors from the Beijing Local Taxation Bureau arrived at the offices of prominent HIV/AIDS NGO Aizhixing. The inspectors questioned employees regarding the receipt of funding and gifts, and checked the organization’s accounting books. When they departed, they left a notice stating that Aizhixing had until May 21 to produce comprehensive tax records dating back to 2002. Aizhixing’s 2006-2007 accounting was already inspected by tax officials in 2008, who did not discover any problems at the time. According to article 86 of the Law on the Management of Tax Collection, an organization cannot be punished for violations of tax code not discovered within five years of their occurrence. This has led Aizhixing director Wan Yanhai (万延海), currently in exile in the United States, and others to believe that Aizhixing is being illegally targeted by Beijing officials in order to pressure the organization into folding. (CHRD)[i]

Arbitrary Detention

Shenzhen Democracy Activist Sentenced to Three Years in Prison for Distributing Falun Gong CDs

CHRD learned on May 23 that Shenzhen democracy activist Ren Ming (任铭) was sentenced to three years in prison for “disseminating evil cult anti-government information” after he distributed compact discs bearing a Falun Gong logo. Netizens and fellow activists expressed their outrage at Ren’s conviction, both because of the harsh nature of his sentence and because some suspect that the crime of “disseminating evil cult anti-government information,” which is highly unusual, was made up by the ruling judge in Ren’s case. Shenzhen activists describe Ren as a dedicated, if very low-key, democracy activist. (CHRD)[ii]

Long Delay in Verdict for Children’s Rights Activist Zhao Lianhai

On May 20, lawyer Li Fangping (李方平) visited detained Beijing activist Zhao Lianhai (赵连海), the founder of the website Kidney Stone Babies (结石宝宝). It has now been nearly two months since Zhao was tried in a closed court on the charge of “creating a disturbance,” and Zhao informed Li that he plans to begin a hunger strike to protest the court’s lengthy delay in issuing a verdict. Li, who believes that it may be July before a verdict is delivered in the case, managed to persuade Zhao to temporarily abandon his plan. However, Zhao stated he would begin the hunger strike if he was found guilty. Zhao was detained in November 2009 and formally arrested on December 17, 2009; his website, Kidney Stone Babies, is dedicated to advocating for families whose children became ill after drinking tainted milk. (CHRD)[iii]

Beijing Activist Yang Qiuyu Missing Following 20 Days of Detention

CHRD learned on May 20 that Beijing activist Yang Qiuyu (杨秋雨) is missing, nine days after he was due to be released from the Chongwen District Detention Center. According to his wife Wang Yuqin (王玉琴), Yang was seized by police from the Longtan police station in Beijing’s Chongwen District after he submitted petitioning materials to the Letters and Visits office of the Beijing Public Security Bureau on April 21. Police at the station told Wang that Yang would be detained 10 days for “disrupting public order,” and would be released on May 1. However, on May 1, Yang was reportedly seized while on his way to meet his wife, and sent to the Chongwen District Detention Center, where he was administratively detained for ten days to “ensure the safety of the Shanghai World Expo.” On May 11, Wang went to meet her husband at the Detention Center, but Yang did not appear, and at the time of writing has yet to return to the couple’s home. Officials at the detention center told Wang that Yang had been released on time, but neither she nor any of Yang’s other friends or relatives have any information about his whereabouts. (CHRD)[iv]

Update: Family of Detained Reporter Xu Yishun Finally Receives Re-education through Labor Notice

On May 14, CHRD reported that Baoding City, Hebei Province reporter Xu Yishun (徐义顺) had been sent to one and a half years of Re-education through Labor (RTL); since that initial report, CHRD has obtained a copy of the RTL notice provided to Xu’s family. According to that notice, which the family received on May 18, Xu has been sent to RTL for “fraud,” based on an incident which allegedly took place two years ago. Xu’s family believes he is being punished for taking a trip in late April to visit Yuan Weijing (袁伟静), the wife of imprisoned Shandong human rights defender Chen Guangcheng (陈光诚). (CHRD)[v]

Disabled Anhui Petitioner Kidnapped, Forcibly Hospitalized

On the morning of May 19, Anhui petitioner Liu Jiajia (刘佳佳) was kidnapped from his Hanshan County home by police and village committee members and forcibly detained in a hospital. Liu, who started petitioning after he was injured in a workplace accident 23 years ago, had planned to travel to the Anhui Provincial Government offices in Hefei City along with other disabled workers to petition on May 19. Local officials had traveled to Liu’s home on the evening of May 18 after learning of his plan, but after Liu refused their offer of medical treatment, they dispatched police officers to stand guard outside of his home to prevent him from leaving. The following morning, Liu was forcibly taken to Hanshan County People’s Hospital. Liu has been petitioning for years in hopes of receiving an insurance settlement and other compensation related to his disability. (CHRD)[vi]

Shanghai Activist Mao Hengfeng Transferred to Re-education through Labor Camp

CHRD learned on May 18 that Shanghai activist Mao Hengfeng (毛恒凤) was transferred to Anhui Province Women’s Re-education through Labor (RTL) Camp in Hefei City, Anhui, on April 27. Mao, who was detained on February 24 and given 18 months of RTL on March 4, has not been allowed visits from her family or lawyers since she was taken into custody. Until her transfer, Mao had been held at the Yangpu Detention Center in Shanghai, and was taken to the Shanghai Women’s RTL Camp on April 26 before being sent to Hefei. Shanghai RTL officials contacted by Mao’s husband refused to answer questions related to her detention, including why she was being sent to a RTL camp Anhui Province, which is roughly 500km from Shanghai. Mao’s husband stated that the family had not received any formal notification from the authorities regarding Mao’s transfer, and that the family is worried they are being barred from visiting with Mao because she has suffered torture or mistreatment while detained. (CHRD)[vii]

More Details Emerge Regarding Government Retaliation against Villagers in Guangxi Province

CHRD continues to gather more information regarding government harassment of residents of Baihutou Village, Beihai City, Guangxi Province, who have been resisting the requisition of their land. On May 18, CHRD learned that, between May 8 and May 14, more than 20 Baihutou villagers were summoned by the Beihai City Public Security Bureau (PSB). Five remain detained at the time of writing, including former village official Xu Kun (许坤). According to the villagers summoned, most of whom who were between the ages of 60 and 80, they were questioned mainly about the parking lot which officials charged Xu with illegally operating. On the morning of May 18, Feng Guangmei (冯广梅), Xu’s wife, delivered a letter of complaint to the Beihai City Political-Legal Committee and the Beihai City Procuratorate, accusing the Beihai PSB of illegally detaining her husband. Xu was criminally detained on suspicion of “running an illegal business” on May 15, an action believed to be in retaliation for his role leading villagers in their resistance efforts. (CHRD)[viii]

On May 19, Beihai Public Security Bureau officials told lawyer Zheng Jianwei (郑建伟) that he could not meet with Xu because his case involves state secrets. However, Zheng was unable to obtain from the police formal documentation confirming the state secrets claim. As of May 19, Xu had been criminally detained for five days; however, his relatives had yet to receive any formal notification regarding his detention. The family believes Xu is being held in a local hotel and may be subjected to torture to extract a confession. Relatives of the four other Baihutou villagers who have been missing for ten days – Zhang Chunqiong (张春琼), Xie Ruying(谢如英), Lu Xiuzhen (卢秀珍), and Zhu Quanjuan (祝全娟) – report that they have likewise not received any formal notice regarding their detentions. (CHRD)[ix]

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Henan Petitioner Hospitalized after Beating during Forced Return from Beijing

CHRD learned on May 22 that Sanmenxia City, Henan Province petitioner Wang Qunfeng (王群凤) is currently hospitalized in her hometown after being beaten by individuals allegedly under the direction of a local Letters and Visits Bureau official. According to her family, Wang was seized outside of the Ministry of Public Security in Beijing by three unidentified individuals on May 13 and forcibly returned to Lushi County, Sanmenxia. While en route, the individuals, who the family believes to be connected to organized crime in Sanmenxia, beat and injured Wang when she refused to cooperate with their demands. Upon arrival in Lushi, Wang was taken to a hospital and the three responsible for beating her were taken to a local police station for questioning. They were later released without being charged. (CHRD)[x]

Detained Xinjiang Petitioner Suffers as Injuries from Police Beating Go Untreated

CHRD learned on May 22 that detained Xinjiang petitioner Feng Yongji (冯永记) is in poor health as injuries she sustained during a police beating continue to worsen. Feng was sent to two years of Re-education through Labor (RTL) for “disrupting work unit order” by officials in Shihezi City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; she was originally seized in Shanghai on April 30, shortly after arriving via train to visit the Shanghai Expo together with a group of sixteen other Beijing-based petitioners. She was then detained in the Shanghai Liaison Office of the Shihezi City Government, where she was violently beaten by ten police officers, sustaining injuries to her back and head. Feng is currently detained in the Urumqi Women’s RTL Camp, and officials there has not given her access to adequate treatment. Instead, they told Feng’s family that they have to raise funds for her treatment. (CHRD)[xi]

Hundreds of Inmates Begin Hunger Strike to Protest Mistreatment in Jilin Province

CHRD learned on May 19 that hundreds of inmates in Jilin Province’s Changchun Prison began a group hunger strike on Monday, May 17. The inmates are taking action in response to a May 17 raid on “contraband goods,” during which they were roughly handled and had many of their personal belongings such as clothes and soaps confiscated or destroyed. During the 6-hour raid, the prisoners were not given any food or water, and were not allowed to use the bathrooms. A few prisoners who felt unwell during the raid were not given any medical attention despite requests. At the time of writing, the hunger strike was still ongoing. (CHRD)[xii]

Zeng Jinyan Submits Sixth Application for Hu Jia’s Release on Medical Parole

On May 19, Zeng Jinyan (曾金燕), wife of imprisoned human rights defender Hu Jia (胡佳), submitted an application for Hu’s release on medical parole to the Beijing Municipal Prison, Bureau of Prison Administration and the Ministry of Justice. This is the sixth such application Zeng has filed on behalf of her husband since he was imprisoned in April 2008; the previous five have all been rejected without a formal written response. Hu suffers from cirrhosis of the liver, and his health has steadily declined as a result of poor living conditions and inadequate medical care in Beijing Municipal Prison. (CHRD)[xiii]

Harassment of Activists

Beijing Activist Qi Zhiyong Kept under “Soft Detention” during Sino-US Dialogue

As top officials from the Chinese and United States government meet in Beijing this week for the China-U.S. Strategic and Economic Dialogue, Beijing activist Qi Zhiyong (齐志勇) reports that he has been placed under 24-hour surveillance at his Xuanwu District home. Qi states that he is not being allowed to leave the premises, and he is concerned his “soft detention” may last through the anniversary of the Tiananmen Square Massacre on June 4. Qi lost a leg after being shot in the Tiananmen Square Massacre and since becoming an activist has been subjected to repeated harassment at the hands of local police. (CHRD)[xiv]

Leading Human Rights Lawyer Mo Shaoping Pressured into Skipping Symposium at Qinghua University

On May 19, Qinghua University Law School in Beijing hosted a symposium in honor of the 80th birthday of American legal scholar and Chinese law expert Jerome Cohen. However, one prominent human rights lawyer, Beijing’s Mo Shaoping (莫少平), had his invitation withdrawn at the last minute. Mo, who had been invited to speak at the event along with 13 other lawyers and professors, was informed on the date of the symposium that he could not attend. Though the sponsors later changed their request, and stated that he could attend, provided that he not speak during the symposium, Mo did not attend the event. (CHRD)[xv]

Officials in Hunan Request Activist Xie Qiang Return to Resign from Government Post

On May 17, Beijing-based writer and activist Xie Qiang (谢强) received a notice from his employer in Hunan Province requesting that he return to resign from his job. Xie, who is originally from Loudi City, Hunan, has taken a leave of absence since 2007 from the financial administration office of Shuidongdi Town, under the Lianyuan City Bureau of Finance, to pursue rights-defense work. Xie believes that the move to force him to resign is a form of harassment by government officials as a result of his support for Charter 08 and other human rights activities. In March, police in Beijing raided Xie’s home, confiscating computers and personal items, and interrogated him on two occasions regarding his recent activities. (CHRD)[xvi]

Freedom of Expression

Anhui Schoolteacher Criminally Detained for Internet Post Regarding School Violence

CHRD learned on May 24 that Anqing City, Anhui Province math teacher Zhang Yong (张勇) has been criminally detained by the City’s Public Security Bureau (PSB) after he posted a commentary online regarding the recent wave of attacks against schoolchildren. According to reports, Zhang was detained in mid-May; employees at the school where Zhang taught before his detention hung up immediately upon hearing Zhang’s name when contacted by phone. Zhang is held at Anqing City Detention Center but further details regarding his detention and the nature of his posts are not currently available. (CHRD)[xvii]

German Volunteer Teacher Forced to Close Blog on Rural Education

On May 20, German volunteer teacher Eckart Loewe (卢安克) announced that he would be shutting down his personal blog (http://luanke.jiaoyu.org/), writing that “attention from society has already exceeded my endurance; I cannot endure the consequences, responsibility, and stress brought about by society’s response, so I can’t let any more people learn about my situation.” Loewe, who has been working for the past six years in Guangxi Province with rural children whose migrant worker parents have left them behind as they seek work, had been threatened by local officials that he did not possess the proper qualifications to serve as a volunteer or teacher in China. Loewe became well-known in China after appearing on the CCTV program Face-to-Face in December 2009; it was following this interview that local officials became concerned about his blog, on which he wrote about rural education and the hardships facing the children of migrant workers. (CHRD)[xviii]

Citizens’ Actions

Hundreds Protest “Unfair Rulings” Outside of Supreme People’s Court

On the morning of May 21, an estimated 500 residents from across Beijing gathered outside of the Supreme People’s Court to protest against what they believed to be unjust rulings by district courts in the city. The protestors called for better oversight of the lower courts and the protection of citizens’ rights by the judicial system. Most of the protestors have been involved in lawsuits in recent years, and have become frustrated and disillusioned by the appeals process. Though there was a heavy police presence, the protests took place peacefully and without incident. (CHRD)[xix]

Freedom of Assembly

Wuxi Activist Hua Chunhui and Friend Detained for Meeting with Hangzhou Activists

On May 22, Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, activist Hua Chunhui (华春辉) and his friend Peng Xuefeng (彭雪峰) were seized and detained by police while traveling in Hangzhou City. Hua and Peng were meeting friends and local activists for lunch when a group of unidentified individuals forced them into a vehicle. They were driven to the Gongshu District police station, where they were detained. Hua has since been released but the whereabouts of Peng is currently unknown. (CHRD)[xx]

Law and Policy Watch

Supreme People’s Court Calls on Lower Courts to Examine Lawsuits against Government, Rule according to Law

At a national judicial work conference in Guangdong Province on May 22, Supreme People’s Court Vice President Jiang Bixin (江必新) addressed the issue of lawsuits brought against the government, stating that local courts must properly handle these suits and rule according to the law. Citing the high number of petitions over allegedly unjust rulings in lawsuits against local officials, Jiang announced that, through the end of the year, the Supreme People’s Court will oversee an effort by local courts to review petitions regarding decisions in administrative litigation lawsuits, and correct unjust rulings. According to statistics produced by the Supreme People’s Court, 18 percent of all petitions last year regarding court verdicts were related to administrative litigation lawsuits, despite the fact that administrative litigation lawsuits made up only 2 percent of the total cases heard by Chinese courts in 2009. (Beijing News and Legal Daily)[xxi]

Supreme People’s Court to Address Juror Regulations

According to a May 18 Legal Daily article, the Supreme People’s Court is in the process of researching and drafting a notice regarding changes to regulations governing jurors. The article states that the Court is seeking to refine guidelines regarding the selection of jury members, their rights and responsibilities, as well as training and oversight of jurors. The regulations currently governing jury members have been in effect since May 2005, and there are approximately 77,000 jurors at the moment in China. However, the Court is concerned that the number of jurors available in different regions of the country varies widely, and that the makeup of the juries is unbalanced, with the proportion of Party cadres or retired military servicemen and women currently too high. (Legal Daily)[xxii]

Addressing the makeup of juries is critical to any hope of moving towards fairer trials in China. By ensuring that juries are representative of the community, not only of the government or military, China’s courts will be taking one step towards a more just judicial system. However, many other aspects of the jury system as it exists today in China – ensuring that jurors are able to exercise their rights to participate in the trial and decide the outcome, for example – need to be further reformed as well to better protect the rights of citizens on trial.

Editors: David Smalls and Lin Sang

*** CHRD’s Human Rights Yearbook 2009 is now available. For a free copy, please contact us with your mailing address at
crdnetwork@gmail.com. ***

News updates from CHRD

Annual Report on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders in China (2009)


[i] “Beijing Public Welfare Organization Aizhixing Once Again Subjected to Tax Investigation” (北京公益机构爱知行再次遭到税务稽查), May 20, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100520171041_21305.html

[ii] “Shenzhen Democracy Activist Ren Ming Sentenced to Three Years in Prison for Disseminating Evil Cult Anti-Government Information” (深圳民主人士任铭被以“散播邪教反政府信息罪”判刑三年), May 23, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100523100125_21342.html

[iii] “‘Kidney Stone Babies’ Father’ Zhao Lianhai Prepares Hunger Strike to Protest Conviction” (“结石 宝宝之父”赵连海准备以绝食抗议判实刑), May 21, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100521141948_21320.html

[iv] “Beijing Activist Yang Qiuyu Missing After Completing Detention” (北京维权人士杨秋雨拘留期满后失踪), May 20, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100520222459_21309.html

[v] “RTL Decision for Baoding, Henan’s Xu Yishun” (河北保定徐义顺的《劳动教养决定书》), May 20, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100520092340_21302.html

[vi] “Disabled Anhui Worker Liu Jiajia Kidnapped by Government” (安徽省工伤职工刘佳佳被政府绑架), May 19, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100519160306_21292.html

[vii] “Shanghai Activist Mao Hengfeng Transferred to Anhui RTL Camp” (上海维权人士毛恒凤被 转到安徽劳教所), May 18, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class18/Class77/201005/20100518162916_21276.html

[viii] “Family of Beihai Rights-Defending Village Official Xu Kun Files Complaint Against City PSB” (北海维权村官许坤家属控告市公安局), May 18, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class71/201005/20100518154100_21275.html; “Beihai Authorities Cook up Charges to Frame Village Official Xu Kun” (北海当局罗织罪名欲构陷维权村官许 坤), May 18, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100518223751_21282.html

[ix] “Beihai Police Claim ‘Xu Kun Case’ Involves State Secrets, Bars Lawyer Visit” (北海警方称“许坤案”涉及国家机密拒绝律师会见), May 19, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100519201900_21297.html; “Family of Beihai Rights-Defending Village Official Xu Kun Suspects Torture to Extract Confession” (北海维权村官许坤家人疑其遭严刑逼供), May 19, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100519193158_21296.html

[x] “Letters and Visits Official Employs Criminal Elements to Kidnap, Beat Petitioner” (信访干部雇黑社会绑架毒打访民), May 22, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/fmzj/201005/20100522210059_21335.html

[xi] “Xinjiang Petitioner Feng Yongji’s Injuries Worsen Considerably in Prison” (新疆访民冯永记狱中伤情严重恶化), May 22, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/fmzj/201005/20100522210302_21336.html

[xii] “Hundreds of Changchun, Jilin Prisoners Begin Group Hunger Strike” (吉林省长春监狱数百名服刑人员集体绝食抗议), May 19, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100519155411_21291.html

[xiii] “Zeng Jinyan Submits Sixth Application for Hu Jia’s Release on Medical Parole” (曾金燕发出第六份《胡嘉保外就医申请书》), May 20, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class18/hujia/201005/20100520000511_21300.html

[xiv] “June 4 Victim Qi Zhiyong Loses Freedom Because of China-US Dialogue” (六四伤残者齐志勇因中美对话被限制人身自由), May 25, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100525000550_21372.html

[xv] “Qinghua University Law School Symposium Gives Rights Lawyer the Cold Shoulder” (清华大学法学研讨会冷待维权律师), May 19, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/bzsf/201005/20100519220718_21298.html

[xvi] “Hunan Independent Intellectual Xie Qiang Receives Notice From Former Work Unit Asking Him to Return and Complete Resignation Procedures” (湖南自由知识分子谢强接到原单位通 知“被清退”), May 18, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100518094238_21269.html

[xvii] “Anqing Teacher Zhang Yong Criminally Detained for Online Posting” (安庆教师张勇因网上发言被刑拘), May 24, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100524093813_21356.html

[xviii] “German Volunteer Teacher in Guangxi Eckart Loewe Pressured into Closing Blog” (广西支教德国人卢安克受到威胁被迫关 闭博客), https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class8/201005/20100521134835_21317.html

[xix] “Five Hundred Gather to Protest Outside of Supreme People’s Court in Beijing” (北京市500余位市民集体到最高法院集会抗议), May 21, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100521130916_21316.html

[xx] “Wuxi City Activist Hua Chunhui and Others Detained while Meeting Friends in Hangzhou City” (无锡维权人士华春辉等人在杭州会友时被扣押), May 22, 2010, https://www.nchrd.org/Article/Class53/201005/20100522155957_21332.html

[xxi] “Supreme People’s Court: The Whole Country Must Arrange to Hear Cases Brought by Petitoners in Beijing Against the Government; Misjudged Cases Must be Rectified” (最高法:全国排查进京上访民告官案 错案必纠), May 23, 2010, http://news.sohu.com/20100523/n272282920.shtml; “Administrative appeals and petitioning cases make up 18% of all cases, the Supreme People’s Court decided to initiate special activity to treat the problem” (行政申诉上访案件占比达18% 最高法决定开展专项治理活动), May 23, 2010, http://news.163.com/10/0523/08/67BT9K3700014AEE.html

[xxii] “Supreme People’s Court Pushes For People’s Jury to Try and Sentence” (最高法力求人民陪审员既审又判), May 18, 2010, http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/bm/content/2010-05/18/content_2147670.htm?node=20733

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