《全球马格尼茨基人权问责法案》介绍

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(English Version) 全球马格尼茨基法案(英语:The Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act)是一项美国国内法,授权美国總統对侵害国际公认人权的肇事人及对腐败者实施制裁,例如禁止入境、冻结其在美国的财产。 这意味着,被认定的肇事人将由美国政府公开宣布为人权侵害者,将被拒绝进入美国,其在美国境内的所有资产都不能动用,所有在美国的企业和银行都会被禁止与他们或他们的企业進行商業交易。 这是一个工具,可以用来对准那些卷入侵害人权的中国官员。尽管许多官员可能没有在美国的资产或赴美旅行计划,但制裁是向人权侵害者施加压力的一种工具,突显标示他们为侵犯人权者,制造压力来迫使他们改变其侵权行径。 一旦被美国列名在制裁名单上,隨之而來可以启动其它问责机制。 例如,美国和国际执法部门可以对有关刑事指控展开调查。 类似法律正在加拿大实施,而英国和欧盟也进入了制定和实施类似法律的阶段。该法案以俄罗斯税务律师谢尔盖·马格尼茨基(Sergei Magnitsky)的名字命名,他因致力于反贪腐而在拘留期间遭受酷刑导致死亡。 當一位肇事者被認定為人權侵害者时,美国财政部会发布一份宣布制裁的声明。根据该法案,美国总统必须每年12月10日 — 人权日 — 向国会提交一份年度报告,详细说明行政部门通过全球马格尼茨基制裁对人权侵害者和腐败官员追究责任的总体努力。 2017年,美国总统认定了制裁中国警官高岩,因其在监禁维权人士曹顺利、并造成她死亡于警方监管之下扮演了角色。 迄今为止,他是唯一根据这部法案而被点名制裁的中国官员。 如何使用它? 2017年是制裁的第一年,美国总统发布了一项13818号行政命令,该命令扩大了符合制裁条件的侵犯人权者的标准,降低了严重侵犯人权的责任人或同谋者的门槛。实际上,这意味着这些肇事者受到以下指控: 包括法外杀戮、酷刑、强迫失踪、任意拘留和贪腐在内的行为; 实施此类行为的实体机构的领导人、或该机构的有些成員实施了此类行为; 这些侵权行为必须发送在过去五年内; 侵害行为应具有一定的持续性和系统性,即在一段时间内通过一套侵权体系来实施的、并已经形成一套模式的侵害行为,而肇事人是该体系中的一员或领导人。 该法案要求美国政府接受非政府组织提供的证据。要提交一个案例,请填写非政府组织提交的范例表格(由「人权第一」(HRF)组织提供):https://www.humanrightsfirst.org/sites/default/files/GloMag-Submission-Template.pdf 注意: – 理想情况下,每一项犯罪行为指控至少应有独立可信来源的核实(联合国、政府声明、可信的媒体机构、非政府组织、可信的受害者或目击者证词)的双重核实。 – 美国政府更有可能受理美国国务院在新闻声明或年度人权报告中提及的个案,以及美国国会议员关注的个案。 官方的资料: 阅读法案 (英文版) : https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/284/text (非官方中文部分翻译): https://china-hrac.blogspot.com/p/quan-qiu.html 请阅读第13818号行政命令: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-blocking-property-persons-involved-serious-human-rights-abuse-corruption/ 美国国务院关于全球马格尼茨基的网页: https://www.state.gov/global-magnitsky-act/ 美国财政部关于全球马格尼茨基的网页: https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/glomag.aspx 参见CHRD围绕《全球马格尼茨基法案》的倡导: Renee Xia (read more…)

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The Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act

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(中文版本) The Global Magnitsky Act is a US domestic law that authorizes the US president to sanction perpetrators of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights and corruption through US-based asset freezes and visa bans. This means that designated perpetrators are publicly announced by the US government as human rights (read more…)

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China’s Ethnic Cleansing Met with US Inaction under Global Magnitsky Law

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By Renee Xia & Frances Eve, The US Administration is squandering an opportunity to hold the Chinese government accountable for its atrocities in the Xinjiang region under the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act. Of grave concern is the lack of targeted sanctions created by this law against the type (read more…)

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OPEN LETTER FROM NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN SUPPORT OF A TARGETED, GLOBAL EU HUMAN RIGHTS SANCTIONS REGIME

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We, the 90 undersigned organizations dedicated to the promotion of universal human rights and/or the fight against corruption, write to voice our strong support for the Foreign Affairs Council to initiate a process aimed at establishing an EU-wide program for the imposition of targeted sanctions on individuals and entities deemed (read more…)

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Justice & Accountability for Persecuted Lawyers in “709” Crackdown

Justice & Accountability for Persecuted Lawyers in “709” Crackdown

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On this third anniversary of the “709” Crackdown, CHRD calls for perpetrators to be held to account for the Chinese government’s persecution of lawyers.

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China: Free Liu Xia, Justice for Tiananmen Victims

China: Free Liu Xia, Justice for Tiananmen Victims

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On the 29th anniversary of the Tiananmen Massacre, CHRD urges China to free Liu Xia. This act would be one way to both end the suppression of truth about the violent crackdown on the 1989 pro-democracy protests and bring about a measure of justice for victims, including her deceased husband, (read more…)

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Small Step Toward Accountability: US Sanctions Chinese Official Over Death of Cao Shunli

Small Step Toward Accountability: US Sanctions Chinese Official Over Death of Cao Shunli

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The US Government has designated Gao Yan (高岩) for sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act for his role in the death of Chinese activist Cao Shunli in March 2014, while he was the chief of the Chaoyang District Public Security Bureau Branch in Beijing.

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Justice for Cao Shunli: Sanctions Sought to Hold Chinese Officials Accountable for Torture

Justice for Cao Shunli: Sanctions Sought to Hold Chinese Officials Accountable for Torture

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On the fourth anniversary of Cao Shunli’s, CHRD again calls for justice for her, urging the US government to use the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act to hold accountable those responsible for her torture and death.

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CHRD Demands Accountability & Justice for Victims of Torture

CHRD Demands Accountability & Justice for Victims of Torture

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For International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, CHRD demands that China live up to its obligations contained in the UN Convention against Torture, including to investigate allegations of torture by state agents and provide compensation, rehabilitation, and redress to victims.

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