Individuals Affected by July 9 Crackdown on Rights Lawyers

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Individuals Affected by July 9 Crackdown on Rights Lawyers

Last updated: May 29, 2017

Massive police operations targeting human right lawyers and coordinated by the Ministry of Public Security began on July 9, 2015, across China. During the crackdown, authorities focused on the Beijing Fengrui Law Firm and lawyers who supported Fengrui lawyer Wang Yu, while other law firms have also been affected. Public security bureau (PSB) officers searched homes, businesses, and law firms, and abducted, detained, summoned, or visited over 300 individuals. Officers warned people against speaking publicly about being visited or detained for questioning; therefore, it is not possible to accurately estimate the number of individuals affected because some people may have remained silent about their encounters with police.

To date, 6 individuals are still in detention or prison. In total, 8 have been tried, of whom 6 were convicted and 1 is awaiting sentencing. 2 have been indicted and are facing trial. 28 were released after lengthy periods in custody, including 3 on suspended sentences, 1 on bail after a trial, 12 after being formally arrested, and 5 after six months in residential surveillance at a designated location. Of the 28, at least 17 disappeared into police control after being released, either on a suspended sentence or bail; 11 are still believed to be under strict police control, such as restrictions on their freedom of movement and communication. At least 300 others were summoned for questioning and then released after 24 hours. 

The detentions listed below include cases of lawyers and activists put on trial, under arrest, under “residential surveillance” in police-designated secret locations, forcibly disappeared, and released after a lengthy period of detention. (Those who police forcibly disappeared were held for over 24 hours, the limit set by Chinese law for the release of a detainee if there is no legal reason to keep detaining the individual.) This page does not contain a comprehensive list of individuals questioned and released after 24 hours. Instead, CHRD has focused on those detained in July 2015 as well as other individuals whose cases police have linked to investigations of those initial cases (e.g. officers transferred their cases to a jurisdiction in Tianjin), or were later detained for defending or supporting detainees.

 

Individuals in custody (by case status, crime, then alphabetical order):

(A more detailed summary of certain cases can be found by clicking the blue link on their name)

Tried & Imprisoned:

“Subversion of state power” (Criminal Law, 105(1))

  • Beijing-based dissident and writer, Hu Shigen (胡石根), male, was tried and convicted on charges of “subversion of state power” on August 3, 2016 by the Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court and handed a 7.5 year prison sentence. His family were not allowed to attend his trial, and his family-appointed lawyer was never granted a single meeting with him. Transferred to an unknown prison after his conviction. Police initially criminally detained Hu on July 10, 2015 on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power” and “picking quarrels and provoking trouble,” before putting him under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on August 7, 2015 and transferring him to a secret location. Hu was formally arrested on January 8, 2016 on suspicion of “subversion,” and then held at Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center. Hu and activists Liu Yongping and Gou Hongguo (below) belonged to the same underground Christian church in Beijing.
  • Lawyer Zhou Shifeng (周世锋), male, director of Fengrui Law Firm, was tried and convicted of “subversion of state power” on August 4, 2016 by Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court, and sentenced to seven years in prison. His family were not allowed to attend the trial and his family-appointed lawyer was not granted a single meeting with him. Transferred to an unknown prison after his conviction. First detained in Beijing on July 10, 2015, state media later reported he was under criminal detention. He was put under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on an unknown date and held at a secret location. Zhou was formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “subversion,” and then moved to Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center, where officials told his lawyers that they had been “fired” without producing any evidence. Zhou founded Beijing Fengrui Law Firm in 2007.

“Picking quarrels and provoking trouble” (Criminal Law, 293(4))

  • Hubei activist Yin Xu’an (尹旭安), male, was tried on September 13, 2016 for “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” by Daye City People’s Court and sentenced on May 27, 2017 to 3.5 years in prison. His family were not allowed to attend the trial hearing. Yin was initially taken into custody on July 28, 2015, formally arrested on September 26, 2015, and indicted on an unknown date. Police seized Yin, Wang Fang (below) and other activists three days after they had publicly shown support for activist Wu Gan (a.k.a. “The Butcher”), who was detained in late May, by wearing t-shirts with Wu’s image in front of the Yellow Crane Tower in Wuhan and then posted photos online. He is being held at Daye City Detention Center in Hubei. Yin has been held incommunicado for 10 months until he was granted a meeting with his lawyer in May 2016, when he told his lawyer about torture he had suffered in detention.

Tried (no verdict announced):

  • Hubei activist Wang Fang (王芳), female, was put on trial on February 10, 2017 on charges of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble.” The trial ended without a sentence being pronounced. Wang’s trial was initially set for August 18, 2016, but authorities postponed it two days before the hearing was set to start, and then delayed it again on December 5, 2016. She was seized in Wuhan on July 28, 2015 by police three days after she and other activists, including Yin Xu’an (above), had publicly shown support for activist Wu Gan (a.k.a. “The Butcher”), who was detained in late May 2015. Police formally arrested Wang on September 15, 2015 and then indicted her on an unknown date. Wang is being held at Wuhan No. 1 Detention Center.

Formally Charged (indicted):

“Subversion of state power” (Criminal Law, 105(1))

  • Wang Quanzhang (王全), male, lawyer with Fengrui Law Firm, was indicted on February 14, 2017 on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” First reported to be under criminal suspicion in Xinhua on July 11, 2015, but not detained until August 3, 2015 on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” and “inciting subversion of state power.” Initially held at Hexi District Detention Center in Tianjin Municipality, then put under”residential surveillance at a designated location” and moved to a secret location. After being formally arrested on January 8, 2016, Wang was moved to Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center. In August 2016, officials Tianjin No. 2 People’s Procuratorate told Wang’s family-appointed lawyer Yu Wensheng (余文生) that had “fired” him, but did not allow Yu to verify such a request.
  • Activist Wu Gan (吴淦), widely known as “The Butcher” (屠夫), male, was indicted on charges of “subversion of state power” and “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” on January 3, 2017 and his case transferred to Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court. Initially detained in May 2015 in Jiangxi, and then arrested in Fujian Province on suspicion of “libel,” “picking quarrels and provoking trouble,” and “inciting subversion of state power.” His case was then transferred to Tianjin, and on January 20, 2016, Tianjin police re-started the period of investigation on his case, claiming that new evidence had emerged. On an unknown date before August 2016, Tianjin officials upgraded the criminal charge to “subversion of state power.” He is being held at Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center. Wu was initially denied visits with his lawyers on the grounds his case involved “endangering state security” crimes until December 9, 2016, when he told his lawyers that police keep pressuring him to confess. Beginning in April 2017, his lawyers were blocked from meeting him. He began working as a special assistant with with Beijing Fengrui Law Firm in the spring of 2015.

Released following lengthy detention:

Released into strict police control:
(list is not exhaustive due to difficulties in verifying such information)

Released on suspended sentence after trial:

  • Activist Gou Hongguo (沟洪国) also known as Ge Ping (戈平), male, was tried and convicted of “subversion of state power” on August 5, 2016 by Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court. Gou received a three year sentence, suspended for three years. His wife was not allowed to attend the trial, and his family-appointed lawyers were barred from defending him. Following his release on a suspended sentence, Gou and his family have been subjected to a number of strict police controls on their freedom of movement and communications. Gou was formally arrested on suspicion of “subversion of state power” on January 8, 2016, and then held at Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center, where officials told his lawyers that they had been “fired” without producing any evidence. Initially detained on July 10, 2015 from Beijing home by Tianjin PSB officers and then put under “residential surveillance at a designated location,” a secret location they didn’t reveal to his family. Guo and activists Liu Yongping (below) and Hu Shigen (above) belong to the same underground church in Beijing.
  • Beijing-based activist Zhai Yanmin (翟岩民), male, was tried and convicted on August 2, 2016 on charges of “subversion of state power.” Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court sentenced him to three years imprisonment, suspended for four years. Hi wife was detained to prevent her from attending the hearing. Following his release on a suspended sentence, Zhai has been under strict control of police, who restrict his freedom of movement and communication. He has reportedly been forced to wear an electronic tracking device. Zhai was formally arrested in January 2016 on charges of “subversion” by Tianjin authorities, and beginning in April 2016, was held at Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center, where officials claimed Zhai had fired his lawyers without producing any evidence. Police initially detained Zhai and at least 16 others on June 15, 2015 on suspicion of “gathering a crowd to disrupt order of a public place” and “picking quarrels and provoking trouble,” following a protest outside a courthouse in Weifang City, Shandong. His case was then transferred to Tianjin.

Released on “bail” following a trial:

  • Lawyer Xie Yang (谢阳), male, was put on trial on May 8, 2017 on charges of “inciting subversion of state power” and “disrupting court order.” His current whereabouts are unknown, after reportedly being granted bail after the trial. Hunan police first detained Xie on July 11, 2015 and held him under “residential surveillance at a police designated location” for six months at a secret location. Changsha PSB formally arrested him on January 8, 2016, and he was moved to Changsha Public Security No. 2 Detention Center. Chen Guiqiu, Xie’s wife, has repeatedly raised concerns that Xie has been tortured and mistreated in detention. Xie has been denied access to his lawyers for long stretches of his time, with police stating it was because he was being held on a “endangering state security” crime. Xie reportedly had two meetings, one in July 2016 and November 2016, where his lawyer saw physical signs of torture. In January 2017, Xie gave lengthy testimony to his lawyer during several meetings that alleged repeated and systematic torture to force him to confess. Xie worked as a lawyer with Hunan Gangwei Law Firm before his arrest.

Released on “bail” after arrest but before formal indictment:

  • Lawyer Bao Longjun (包龙军), husband of lawyer Wang Yu, was released on bail sometime in the first week of August 2016 following his wife’s televised “confession” on July 31. Since that time, he and his family have reportedly been held under house arrest in an apartment in Inner Mongolia, with 24-hour police guards and escorts if they leave the home. They are not allowed to contact supporters. Bao Longjun was seized by police at Beijing Capital International Airport on the evening of July 8 along with his son, who was later released into house arrest. Tianjin authorities then put Bao under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “creating a disturbance” and “inciting subversion of state power.” His family and lawyers received no information on his status from authorities until August 24, 2015 and were not allowed to visit him. Bao was formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power” and then transferred to Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center. Bao Longjun received his law license in Inner Mongolia but was not employed by a law firm prior to his arrest.
  • Gao Yue (高月), female, paralegal to lawyer Li Heping in Beijing, was released on bail on an unknown date in April 2016. Following her release on bail, she has reportedly returned to her hometown. Police confiscated her id card, banned her from contacting supporters, and have restrict her freedom of movement. Gao Yue first went missing July 20, 2015 and her family later received a notice on July 24, 2015 from the Tianjin PSB stating she was in “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “creating a disturbance” and “inciting subversion of state power.” Police formally arrested Gao on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “helping to destroy evidence” and then transferred her to Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center. Authorities denied her access to legal counsel for the duration of her detention on national security grounds. Gao had been working with lawyer Li Heping (above) on a project on China’s implementation of the Convention against Torture with the UK-based NGO The Rights Practice.
  • Buddhist monk and activist Lin Bin (林斌, aka Monk Wang Yun, 望云和尚), male, was formally arrested on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power” on January 8, 2016. Authorities released him in September 2016, and he briefly returned home under police control and was then taken to a third location, reportedly in Tianjin, before being returned home again on an unclear date. He reportedly cannot freely travel, communicate with supporters or accept interviews. Lin Bin first disappeared on July 10, 2015 at the Chengdu airport in Sichuan after unknown men seized him, initially on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble.” On August 28, 2015 his lawyer Chang Boyang (常伯阳) confirmed that Tianjin PSB Hexi District sub-branch was holding Lin under residential surveillance at a secret location on suspicion of an “endangering national security” crime. After his formal arrest in January 2016, authorities moves him to Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center. Lin was the head monk at the Nine Xianchan Temple in Ningde City, Fujian Province prior to his detention. The temple was searched by unindentified individuals on July 9, 2015.  Lin had been travelling in Chengdu due to pressure from the Fujian Linde Religion Supervisory Bureau over his support for human rights lawyers. Lin was also a vocal supporter of detained activist Wu Gan.
  • Activist Liu Yongping (刘永平) also known by screen name Lao Mu (老木), male, was formally arrested on January 8, 2016 on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Held at Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center until his release on “bail pending further investigation” on August 8, 2016. Following his “release,” Liu was held under house arrest in a guesthouse in Tianjin until he was handed over to local national security officers in Pingxiang, Jiangxi Province on October 21, 2016, who banned him from leaving and put him under strict surveillance. His freedom of movement and communications have been restricted by police. First taken away by police on July 10, 2015, his whereabouts were unknown until his brother received a notice from Tianjin police on August 16, 2015 that Liu is being held at “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “picking quarrels and prokvoking trouble.” Liu and activists Hu Shigen and Gou Hongguo (above) belonged to the same underground Christian church in Beijing.
  • Wang Yu (王宇), female, lawyer at Fengrui Law Firm, was formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” She was held at Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center, until her release on “bail” on an unknown date in July 2016. On August 1, 2016 an interview with Wang Yu was released, in which she claimed that regreted her work, denounced her former boss Zhou Shifeng, and claimed foreign forces tried to “use” her to “attack” and “discredit” the Chinese government. Since that time, she and her family have reportedly been held under house arrest in an apartment in Inner Mongolia, with 24-hour police guards and escorts if they leave the home. They are not allowed to contact supporters. Wang Yu was first taken away from her home in the early morning of July 9, 2015; state media reported days later she had been put under criminal detention. On an unknown date she was put under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” and “inciting subversion of state power.” Her lawyers have been blocked from visiting her on the grounds that her case involves national security. Wang Yu has represented a number of high-profile political cases in her career.
  • Chengdu activist Xing Qingxian (幸清贤), male, was formally arrested by Tianjin police on May 6, 2016, on suspicion of “organizing others to cross national borders.” He was then held at Tianjin Municipal No. 2 Detention Center and released on unknown date in 2016. Xing has been living under strict police control since his release, with restrictions on his freedom of movement and communication. Xing was seized by Burmese and Chinese police on October 6, 2015 in Mong La, Myanmar along with Tang Zhishun (above) and Bao Zhuoxun (包卓轩), the 16-year old son of Wang Yu and Bao Longjun. They were returned to China on an unknown date, and shortly after, Bao Zhuoxun was returned to Inner Mongolia and put under house arrest but Xing and Tang were then detained incommunicado. Xing’s lawyers made multiple attempts to ascertain his location throughout 2015 and 2015, but Tianjin PSB repeatedly denied the lawyers’ requests on the grounds the case was of “grave significance.” The only information about the two made public by Chinese authorities was through state media—Global Times and Xinhua—which stated the two men were suspected of “illegally crossing the national border.”
  • Paralegal Zhao Wei (赵威), female, also known as Kaola (考拉), aide to lawyer Li Heping (see above), was formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” She was held at Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center until her release on “bail pending further investigation” on an unknown date; Tianjin police announced on July 7, 2016, that Zhao Wei had “admitted” to crimes and thus the conditions were met for bail. After she was “released,” she gave an interview with the South China Morning Post, in which she said she regreted her former work, but her husband doubted she was completely free from police control as he could not contact her. In September 2016, police reportedly moved her and her parents to an apartment in her hometown; she has remained under police control, who restrict her freedom of movement and communications. Zhao was first seized from her home on July 10, 2015 and her lawyer only confirmed on July 28 that she was being held at Hexi District Detention Center in Tianjin Municipality on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” and a crime in the category of “endangering state security.” Authorities denied her all access to her lawyers while in detention.

Release on bail after being put under residential surveillance but before being arrested:

  • Beijing lawyer Zhang Kai (张凯), male, was released on March 23, 2016, approximately one month after he was placed under criminal detention on February 26, 2016. Zhang had been held for six months under residential surveillance at a secret location, before state media broadcast and a televised “confession” on February 25, 2016. In the confession, Zhang “admitting” to having damaged “national security” through his actions, and urging Chinese lawyers not to accept financial support from abroad, which followed a pattern of “confessions” made by incommunicado detainees. Following his release, Zhang was reportedly put under house arrest for a period of time. He is restricted from freely traveling, meeting with friends, or contacting supporters. Wenzhou PSB in Zhejiang Province seized Zhang on August 25, 2015 and held him on suspicion of “gathering a crowd to disrupt social order” and “stealing, buying, and providing state secrets and intelligence” for overseas entities. His lawyer confirmed on August 31, 205 that Zhang had been put under residential surveillance on an “endangering national security” crime and “gathering a crowd to disrupt social order” charges. Zhang, originally from Beijing, and lawyer Fang Xiangui (方县桂) and legal assistant Liu Peng (刘鹏) were picked up after travelling to Zhejiang to provide legal representation to local Christians facing religious persecution under government orders to remove crosses from churches. Zhang’s lawyers were not allowed to visit him while he was detained. Fang and Liu were released on December 11, 2015.

Released and not considered to be under strict police control, though still subjet to police surveillance:

(**some individuals previously disappeared into police control after release)

Released after suspended sentence:

  • Prominent lawyer Li Heping (李和平)**, male, was tried in a secret hearing on April 25, 2017 by Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court and convicted of “subversion of state power” on April 28. He received a three year prison sentence, suspended for four years. His wife was not informed of the trial until after the sentencing, and his family-appointed lawyers were barred from defending him. Disappeared for several days after his “release,” before being allowed to return home. Formally arrested on January 8, 2016, he was then held at Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center, where officials told his lawyers that they had been “fired” without producing any evidence. Initially detained on July 10, 2015 by Tianjin PSB officers, and put under “residential sureveillance at a designated location,” a secret location they didn’t reveal to his family. They did not produce a warrant and searched his home and his firm, Globe-Law Law Firm, confiscating materials. His legal assistants Zhao Wei and Gao Yue were also detained.

Released on bail after being arrested but not formally indicted:

  • Trainee lawyer Li Shuyun (李姝云)**, female, with Fengrui Law Firm, was formally arrested on January 8, 2016 on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” She was held at Tianjin No. 1 Detention Center from her arrest to her release on “bail pending further investigation” on April 8, 2016. Following her release, supporters could not contact her, but on April 7, 2017, authorities formally dropped the criminal case against her. Tianjin Municipality Public Security Bureau (PSB) officers initially seized her from her home on July 10, 2015. and took away a computer and hard disk. They claimed they were working with Beijing police and that they were investigating a “criminal case.” She was under enforced disappearance in the months prior to her arrest.
  • Beijing lawyer Li Chunfu (李春富), male, was formally arrested on January 8, 2016 on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Held at Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center until his release on bail January 12, 2017. Appears to have a serious psychological disorder due to his treatment and possible tortre in detention. Li disappeared after he was taken away by police from his home on August 1, 2015. Police also searched his home. His family had been given no notification of his detention until his arrest in January 2016. Li is the younger brother of missing lawyer Li Heping (below).
  • Activist and administrative assistant at Fengrui Law Firm Liu Sixin (刘四新), male, was formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “subversion of state power.” Held at Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center until his release on bail an unknown date in November 2016. Liu disappeared on July 10, 2015 after phoning his colleague Liu Xiaoyuan (刘晓原) in the morning and shouting, “They’re coming!” before the line went dead. Liu was held at Hexi District Detention Center in Tianjin prior to his arrest on suspicion of “creating a disturbance” and a crime in the category of “endangering state security.” On February 28, 2016 a detention center officer claimed that Liu had supposedly “fired” his family-appointed lawyers, but did not provide any evidence.
  • Beijing activist Tang Zhishun (唐志顺)**, male, was formally arrested by Tianjin police on May 4, 2016, on suspicion of “organizing others to cross national borders.” He was released on unknown date in 2016, but information didn’t become public until December 2016, and he has returned home to Beijing. Tang was seized by Burmese and Chinese police on October 6, 2015 in Mong La, Myanmar along with Xing Qingxian (below) and Bao Zhuoxun (包卓轩), the 16-year old son of Wang Yu and Bao Longjun. They were returned to China on an unknown date, and shortly after, Bao Zhuoxun was returned to Inner Mongolia and put under house arrest but Tang and Xing were then detained incommunicado. Tang’s lawyers made multiple attempts to ascertain his location throughout 2015 and 2015, but Tianjin PSB repeatedly denied the lawyers’ requests on the grounds the case was of “grave significance.” The only information about the two made public by Chinese authorities was through state media—Global Times and Xinhua—which stated the two men were suspected of “illegally crossing the national border.”
  • Beijing lawyer Xie Yanyi (谢燕益)**, male, was formally arrested on January 8, 2016, on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power.” On August 8, 2016 officials at Tianjin No. 2 People’s Procuratorate informed his wife that his case has already been recommended for indictment. Officials then informed his lawyer on December 5 that his case had been sent back to police for further investigation. On January 5, 2017, Xie’s wife reported that Xie had been released, but he did not return home until January 18. Authorities claimed in May 2016 that Xie has engaged a new lawyer approved by the government; his wife subsequently filed a lawsuit against the government-appointed lawyer, alleging the lawyer illegally refused to provide information on her husband’s case. He is being held at Tianjin No. 2 Detention Center. Police first seized Xie in the morning of July 12, 2015. Xinhua listed him as being held under compulsory criminal measures in a July 18 article, though his family had been given no official notice throughout the duration of his detention. He was under enforced disappearance in the months prior to his arrest. Xie Yanyi is a lawyer with Beijing Kaitai Law Firm.

Released after “residential surveillance at a designated location”:

After six months

  • Huang Liqun (黄力群)**, male, lawyer with Fengrui Law Firm, was seized by police on July 10, 2015 and then criminally detained, according to state media. He was held at an unknown location until his release on January 7, 2016, and is believed to have been under “residential surveillance at a designated location.” Huang was made to testify against his former boss Zhou Shifeng at Zhou’s trial on August 4, 2016. He was unable to contact supporters for months after his release and around the trial, but by mid-2017, he is reportedly free to meet with friends and travel, though he cannot give media interviews or contact human rights lawyers. His law license is reportedly still attached to Fengrui Law Firm, so he is no longer able to practice law.
  • Lawyer Sui Muqing (隋牧青), male, was held under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power” until his release in “bail pending further investigation” on January 6, 2016. Police seized him from his home on the night of July 10, 2015 on charges of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” and took him to South Village Police Station in Panyu District, Guangzhou, but he was later transferred to an unknown location. Sui had signed an open letter in support of Wang Yu before his detention. His wife, also a lawyer, was taken away by police and later released.
  • Xie Yuandong (谢远东), male, trainee lawyer with Fengrui Law Firm, was held under “residential surveillance at a designated location” by Tianjin PSB on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” and “inciting subversion of state power” until his release on “bail pending further investigation” on January 19, 2016. Xie initially disappeared on July 10, 2015 and his family learnt from Xinhua article on July 18 that he had been placed under compulsory criminal measures. As a part of the government smear campaign against Fengrui Law Firm, Xie was featured in state media on July 19 “confessing,” likely under duress.

Under six months

  • Lawyer Fang Xiangui (方县桂) was held under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “gathering a crowd to disrupt social order” and “stealing, buying, and providing state secrets and intelligence” for overseas entities. Wenzhou PSB intially took Fang away on August 25, 2015 along with Beijing lawyer Zhang Kai (above) and legal assistant Liu Peng (below), after they travelled to Zhejiang Province to provide legal representation to local Christians facing religious persecution under government orders to remove crosses from churches. He was released on December 11, 2015.
  • Paralegal Liu Peng (刘鹏) was held under “residential surveillance at a designated location” on suspicion of “gathering a crowd to disrupt social order” and “stealing, buying, and providing state secrets and intelligence” for overseas entities. Wenzhou PSB intially took Liu away on August 25, 2015 along with Beijing lawyers Zhang Kai and Fang Xiangui (above), after they travelled to Zhejiang Province to provide legal representation to local Christians facing religious persecution under government orders to remove crosses from churches.On November 13, Liu’s lawyers Li Baiguang (李柏光) and Liu Peifu (刘培福) received word from the Wenzhou PSB that Liu had decided to fire them but were not allowed to meet with their client, in a similar pattern of other detainees in the crackdown mysteriously removing their family-appointed lawyers. He was released on December 11, 2015.
  • Henan activist Xu Zhihan (徐知汉was put under “residential surveillance” at his house in Zhengzhou on suspicion of “inciting subversion of state power” on July 24, 2015. Released on unknown date. Xu had initially been forcibly taken from Ji’nan, Shandong Province to his home province on July 11, 2015 and held in police custody until July 14, 2015 before being taken away again.
  • Lawyer Wang Qiushi (王秋), male, lawyer of detained lawyer Wang Quanzhang, was taken into custody on January 10, 2016 and later placed under “residential surveillance at designated location” after police summoned him twice for questioning. He was released on “bail pending further investigation” on February 1, 2016. He has reportedly been banned from leaving Harbin.

Released on bail after being put under criminal detention but before being arrested:

  • Lawyer Chen Taihe (陈泰和), male, also a law professor at the University of Electronic Technology in the Guangxi autonomous region, was criminally detained on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking troubles” on July 13, 2015. He was held at Guilin City No. 2 Detention Center until his release on August 22, 2015. According to his lawyer, Tan Yongpei (覃永沛), who had also been questioned by police in the raids, Chen’s detention is related to a “Citizen’s Action Group” WeChat group. Chen said he was released after promising to disband the group, and he kept silent about his release until late September while his family fled China.
  • Activist Jiang Jianjun (姜建军), male, was criminally detained by Liaoning police on July 12, 2015, on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking troubles.” He was held at Dalian Detention Center until his release on August 18, 2015.
  • Lawyer Ren Quanniu (任全牛)**, male, was criminally detained on July 8, 2016 on suspicion of “picking quarrels and provoking trouble” for posting social media messages about his client. He was held at Zhengzhou No. 3 Detention Center in Henan Province until his release on “bail pending further investigation” on August 5, 2016. Following his so-called “release,” Ren briefly returned home for less than an hour, before authorities forced him to travel. Initially allowed once-a-day phone contact with his wife, he was  completely cut off from contact with the outside world. His whereabouts remained unknown until he confirmed in November 2016 announcing he had been released. During his detention, Ren was only granted one meeting with his lawyers Chang Boyang (常伯阳) and Zhang Junjie (张俊杰), on July 11, afterwards authorities repeatedly denied requests on the grounds he was being interrogated. Ren, the family-appointed defence lawyer of crackdown detainee Zhao Wei (above), was detained the day after Zhao’s release from detention after she was held for a year incommunicado. Zhao’s weibo account began posting messages purpotedly from the activist after her release, but lawyer Ren raised doubts that she had sent the messages. Ren had also posted messages on his social media account on May 27, 2016 about a rumour that Zhao Wei had been sexually abused in the detention center. On July 8, 2016 the Zhengzhou Public Security Bureau posted on weibo that Ren is being investigated for disseminating false information about the abuse. Zhao’s husband cast doubt that she was completely free and condemned the detention of lawyer Ren.

Released following enforced disappearance:

  • Wang Fang (王芳), female, an accountant with the Fengrui Law Firm, was disappeared on her way to work on July 10,2015 and released on January 8, 2016, when many of her colleagues were placed under formal arrest.

Partial List of Some Individuals Released after Questioning and Warning (24-72 hours):

  1. Liu Xiaoyuan (刘晓原), senior partner at Fengrui Law Firm, Beijing Municipality; held for three days and was threatened with disbarment
  2. Zhou Lixin (周立新), Guizhou-based lawyer with Fengrui Law Firm
  3. Zhang Weiyu (张维玉), lawyer, Shandong Province
  4. Jiang Tianyong (江天勇), debarred lawyer, Beijing Municipality
  5. Wang Cheng (王成), lawyer, Beijing Municipality
  6. Sun Shihua (孙世华), lawyer, Guangdong Province; wife of detained lawyer Sui Muqing (see above)
  7. Liu Zhengqing (刘正清), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  8. Wang Quanping (王全平), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  9. Wu Kuiming (吴魁明), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  10. Cheng Shiquan (陈武权), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  11. Tan Yongpei (覃永沛), lawyer, Guangxi Autonomous Region
  12. Wang Haijun (王海军), lawyer, Hunan Province
  13. Guo Xiongwei (郭雄伟), lawyer, Hunan Province
  14. Yang Jinzhu (杨金柱), lawyer, Hunan Province
  15. Yang Xuan (杨璇), lawyer, Hunan Province
  16. Zhang Chongshi (张重实), lawyer, Hunan Province
  17. Shi Fulong (石伏龙), lawyer, Hunan Province
  18. Chen Nanshi (陈南石), lawyer, Hunan Province
  19. Zhang Xuezhong (张雪忠), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  20. Zhong Ying (钟颖), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  21. Liu Weiguo (刘卫国), lawyer, Shandong Province
  22. Fu Yonggang (付永刚), lawyer, Shandong Province
  23. Zeng Weichang (曾维昶), lawyer, Yunnan Province
  24. Liu Wenhua (刘文华), lawyer, Yunnan Province
  25. Zou Lihui (邹丽慧), lawyer, Fujian Province
  26. Ren Quanniu (任全牛), lawyer, Henan Province
  27. Meng Meng (孟猛), lawyer, Henan Province
  28. Ma Shunli (马连顺), lawyer, Henan Province
  29. Fu Jianbo (付剑波), lawyer, Chongqing Municipality
  30. He Wei (何伟), lawyer, Chongqing Municipality
  31. Li Dawei (李大伟), lawyer, Gansu Province
  32. Jiang Yongji 蒋永继), lawyer, Gansu Province
  33. Wang Qiushi (王秋实), lawyer, Heilongjiang Province
  34. Liu Lianhe (刘连贺), lawyer, Tianjin Municipality
  35. Wang Moqiong (王万琼), lawyer, Sichuan Province
  36. Yu Quan (于全), lawyer, Sichuan Province
  37. Zhang Lei (张磊), lawyer, Jiangsu Province
  38. Chang Boyang (常伯阳), lawyer, Henan Province
  39. Zhang Jiankang (张鉴康), lawyer, Shanxi Province
  40. Lu Fangzhi (), lawyer, Hunan Province
  41. Wen Donghai (文东海), lawyer, Hunan Province
  42. Xue Rongmin (薛荣民), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  43. Li Tiantian (李天天), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  44. Qin Lei (秦雷), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  45. Ji Laisong (姬来松), lawyer, Henan Province
  46. Li Shihui (刘士辉), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  47. Li Fangping (李方平), lawyer, Beijing Municipality. He was detained twice for questioning and on the second time he was interrogated for 14 hours.
  48. Ge Yongxi (葛永喜), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  49. Luo Qian (罗茜), lawyer, Hunan Province
  50. Li Jinxing (李金星), lawyer, Beijing; his law office, “Action to Redress Grievances Office” was searched
  51. Li Weida (李威达), lawyer, Hebei Province
  52. Ge Wenxiu (葛文秀), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  53. You Feizhu (游飞翥), lawyer, Chongqing Municipality
  54. Hu Linzheng (胡林政), lawyer, Hunan Province
  55. Shu Xiangxin (舒向新), lawyer, Shandong Province
  56. Xu Hongwei (徐红卫), lawyer, Shandong Province
  57. Wang Yuqin (王玉琴), lawyer, Shandong Province
  58. Xiong Dongmei (熊冬梅), lawyer, Shandong Province
  59. Liu Jinxiang (刘金湘), lawyer, Shandong Province
  60. Wang Xueming (王学明), lawyer, Shandong Province
  61. Xiong Wei (熊伟), lawyer, Shandong Province
  62. Zhang Hai (张海), lawyer, Shandong Province
  63. Feng Yanqiang (冯延强), lawyer, Shandong Province
  64. Liang Lanxin (梁澜馨), lawyer, Hebei Province
  65. Zhang Junjie (张俊杰), lawyer, Henan Province
  66. Chen Zongyao (陈宗瑶), lawyer, Zhejiang Province
  67. Yuan Yulai (袁裕来), lawyer, Zhejiang Province
  68. Lü Zhoubin (吕洲宾), lawyer, Zhejiang Province
  69. You Zhonghong (游忠洪), lawyer, Chongqing Municipality
  70. Zhang Tingyuan (张庭源), lawyer, Chongqing Municipality
  71. Lei Dengfeng (雷登峰), lawyer, Chongqing Municipality
  72. Huang Simin (黄思敏), lawyer, Hubei Province
  73. Zhang Yujuan (张玉娟), lawyer, Hunan Province
  74. Yang Mingkua (杨名跨), lawyer, Yunnan Province
  75. Wang Zongyue (王宗跃), lawyer, Guizhou province
  76. Li Yuhan (李昱函), lawyer, Liaoning Province
  77. Chen Jiangang (陈建刚), lawyer, Beijing Municipality
  78. Liu Shuqing (刘书庆), lawyer, Shandong Province
  79. Xu Guijuan (许桂娟), lawyer, Shandong Province
  80. Ma Wei (马卫), lawyer, Tianjin Municipality
  81. Zhuang Daohe (庄道鹤), lawyer, Guizhou Province
  82. Wang Liao (汪廖), lawyer, Zhejiang Province
  83. Li Guisheng (李贵生), lawyer, Guizhou Province
  84. Chen Keyun (陈科云), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  85. Cui Xiaoping (崔小平),lawyer, Guangdong Province
  86. Xu Dejun (徐德军), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  87. Zhu Jinhui (朱金辉), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  88. Pang Kun (庞琨), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  89. Wu Zhenqi (吴镇琦), lawyer, Guangdong Province
  90. Ran Tong (冉彤), lawyer, Sichuan Province
  91. Miao Jie (苗杰), lawyer, Henan Province
  92. Li Xiangyang (李向阳), lawyer, Shandong Province
  93. Bao Zhouxuan (包卓轩), teenage son of lawyers Wang Yu and Bao Longjun; questioned four times by police, passport confiscated and blocked from studying abroad, and told not to speak to lawyers. Held under house arrest beginning on July 18
  94. Lan Wuyou (蓝无忧), activist, Hunan Province
  95. You Yuping (游豫平), activist, Beijing Municipality
  96. Ou Biaofeng (欧彪峰), activist, Hunan Province
  97. Wang Fulei (王福磊 also known as the “Fisherman” 渔夫), activist, Guangdong Province
  98. Zuo Peizheng (左培生), staff member at Beijing Fengrui Law Firm
  99. Zhou Qing (周庆), Zhou Shifeng’s driver at Fengrui law firm
  100. Chen Ronggao (陈荣高), activist, Guangzhou
  101. Ni Yulan (倪玉兰), activist, Beijing Municipality
  102. Li Xiaoling (李晓玲), activist, Beijing Municipality
  103. Ding Hongfen (丁红芬), activist, Jiangsu Province
  104. Yao Qin (姚钦), activist, Jiangsu Province
  105. Li Fawang (李发旺), activist, Shanxi Province
  106. Wang Mingxian (王明贤), activist, Jiangsu Province
  107. Zheng Enchong (郑恩宠), lawyer, Shanghai Municipality
  108.  Gong Lei (巩), activist, Shandong Province
  109. Ren Naijun (任乃俊), activist, Shanghai Municipality
  110. Wei Deifeng (魏得丰), male, assistant to Hunan lawyer Xie Yang (see above)
  111. Guo Yuhao (郭宇豪  also known as Dai Shiqiao 戴仕桥), activist, Beijing Municipality

This page does not maintain a comprehensive list of names of those questioned and released within 24 hours. Please see this page for a full list of the public names of those questioned and released.

Related Documentation:

China: End Show Trials, Free Human Rights Lawyers & Other Defenders, August 8, 2016, CHRD

Secrecy Shrouding “709” Detainees Pre-empts “Fairness” of Trial, July 31, 2016, CHRD

China: Free Rights Lawyers, Respect Rule of Law, July 7, 2016, CHRD (中文)

Communiqué to UN Special Procedures & the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights, April 19, 2016

Politically Charged Arrests in China Escalate Persecution of Rights Lawyers, January 14, 2016, CHRD

What Happened to the Detained Lawyers: 18 Held in Secret & Several Accused of “Endangering National Security”, August 20, 2015

China: Halt Police Operations Targeting Human Rights Lawyers as “National Security” Threat, July 13, 2015

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